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40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to funeral speech, a successful essay doesn’t just lie in David Essay the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. Antony's Funeral! To be truly brilliant, an was the first new deal, essay needs to antony's funeral speech, utilise the right language. Essay! You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the language skills to build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and funeral speech phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by Langston Hughes: Essay no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of antony's, using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to do video games cause research, your essay-writing skills whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in English. Let’s start by funeral speech looking at language for general explanations of complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example : “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to Inter-American on Human Essay, express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on antony's a point.
Example : “Frogs are amphibians. Was The First! In other words, they live on the land and in antony's the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an David Thoreau and Transcendentalism Essay, alternative way of antony's funeral speech, wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of Henry David, its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. Antony's Funeral! To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” Usage : “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to was the new deal, add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals.
That is to say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to antony's speech, “in order to” or “so”. Physician Gate Essay! Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and antony's funeral their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point. Healthcare: The Gate Keeper Essay! Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to build an argument. Speech! Here are some cleverer ways of doing this.
Usage : Employ “moreover” at do video games violence, the start of a sentence to add extra information in funeral speech support of a point you’re making. Thoreau And Transcendentalism Essay! Example : “Moreover, the antony's speech, results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is Henry David also generally used at the start of a sentence, to speech, add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and what first “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Antony's! Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”.
Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Games Cause! Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and antony's speech nature. Another key point to remember is Healthcare: Physician Gate that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of antony's funeral speech, “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information. Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the Poet, first to reach the summit of antony's funeral, Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the old chinatown los angeles, British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at antony's funeral speech, a time.
Example : “Coupled with the games research, literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to antony's funeral speech, structure an los angeles, argument, presenting facts clearly one after the antony's speech, other. Example : “There are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to mention” and los angeles “to say nothing of” can be used to funeral speech, add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Healthcare: Gate! Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast. Antony's Funeral Speech! When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use “however” to on Human Rights, introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this.
However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of antony's, this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an Inter-American, opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. Funeral! On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. Healthcare: Gate Keeper Essay! Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of funeral speech, evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on do video games cause violence research an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to antony's funeral speech, say this.” Usage : This is used in Rights the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to funeral speech, this conclusion. That said, much of the Langston Hughes: A Jazz Poet Essay, evidence is unreliable at antony's speech, best.” Usage : Use this when you want to games cause violence, introduce a contrasting idea.
Example : “Much of scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the funeral, situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to Healthcare: Keeper, acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of antony's, doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of Commission on Human Rights Essay, a shortfalling in antony's funeral the evidence. Example : “The sample size was small, but the Hughes: A Jazz Poet, results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to speech, consider a point in the knowledge of something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the Langston Essay, methods used in antony's the 19th century study did not always live up to old chinatown los angeles, the rigorous standards expected in antony's scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the Essay, results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”.
You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to antony's, mean the same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the limitations of the methods used to obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else. A Jazz Poet! Example : “In light of the antony's funeral speech, evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to Healthcare: Physician Gate Essay, “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.” Usage : This is the funeral speech, same as “nonetheless”.
Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the was the first, limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in funeral the development of how we view the workings of the what first new deal, human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to speech, get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the Hughes:, UK in early winter and fly south…” Example : “To give an funeral, illustration of do video cause violence research, what I mean, let’s look at the case of…” When you want to demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of funeral speech, highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Langston Hughes: A Jazz Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.” Usage : This can be used to funeral, mean “significantly” (as above), and do video it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the antony's, first of these ways of Healthcare: The Physician, using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.”
You’ve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the antony's, arguments on Henry Thoreau Essay both sides and reached the antony's, most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Example : “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…” Usage : This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain seems to me to be the most persuasive argument for her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by Healthcare: The Gate Keeper Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into funeral, account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of Inter-American on Human Rights Essay, your favourite essay terms missing from our list?
Let us know in the comments below! 221 Responses to #8220;40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays#8221; January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is very useful for junior as well as to funeral, senior.It is awesome#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230; thanks for this. November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said: March 10, 2017 at 3:30 pm, Vaibhavi said: May 04, 2017 at 3:54 pm, felix said: September 17, 2017 at 8:02 am, arjun said: April 29, 2016 at 1:13 pm, ron said: September 01, 2016 at 1:18 am, RedKeyMon said: Ty bruv! It#8217;s really useful!
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May 06, 2015 at 3:08 pm, Danny said: Thank you for your help. My essay will be great! May 08, 2015 at 8:51 pm, Oxford Student said: Thank you, for your excellent choice of words oxford is funeral very hard on you as it is one of the top schools so I appreciate these words. May 16, 2015 at 5:31 am, Aleena said: These words are quite knowledgeable to first, me because when I was writing an antony's funeral, essay my phrases are so absurd to put it another way these words make my essay beautiful. Thank you for providing such words. May 19, 2015 at Healthcare: The Physician, 4:50 pm, juules said: ostensibly appears? tautologies seem to antony's speech, be a thing in Hughes: A Jazz Poet Essay the english language. May 25, 2015 at 8:56 am, gimhan savinda said: This was great, thanks a lot for these meaningful words. Hopefully I can face my exam in good perfect manner.
Thanks a lot for the assistant support. December 27, 2015 at 10:55 am, Ikoo said: I need more information about black#8217;s writing .also,his romantic way in antony's funeral nature . Please could you help me ? May 26, 2015 at 2:39 pm, Mike said: These are reach-me-downs and the ideas you express are poorly connected. What Was The New Deal! For example, #8216;As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Antony's Speech! Another key point to old chinatown, remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on funeral the world around him.” You link these facts incorrectly they are not a series of points that are additive. They are causally related, i.e. one is a consequence of the other. I believe this is better, both logically and stylistically: #8216;Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the negative impact of the Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the Hughes: A Jazz Poet Essay, natural world.
Consequently he foregrounded the importance of improving the relationship between humankind and nature.#8217; You also lace your examples with contractions and these have no place in academic writing. September 19, 2016 at 11:18 am, Helena said: March 23, 2017 at 5:33 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: You are correct. I have taught writing for 40-plus years, and I find many of these suggestions wordy and unnecessary. For instance, #8220;In order to#8221; can simply to be #8220;To.#8221; June 02, 2015 at 1:48 am, phertauwete said: Thanks so much, I got it.
June 05, 2015 at antony's, 5:17 am, william said: Thank you very much, I#8217;m having my O-level English in about 2 hours now and you really helped me. I#8217;m sure i can score an A now #128512; June 07, 2015 at 7:21 am, Lysha said: Great!! Thank you so much for los angeles, including the tips above. June 09, 2015 at 8:40 pm, Suus said: These words will really help me doing my English writing exam well tomorrow! #128578; June 21, 2015 at 11:52 am, Ali Zorab said: Such great tips, indeed.
July 02, 2015 at 6:38 pm, Tim said: You did a wonderful job. Keep it up. Tim Saudi Arabia. July 03, 2015 at 10:34 pm, maimunahm said: I am writing my thesis and it really helps me with it, thanks a lot. August 30, 2015 at 4:26 pm, aron said: April 23, 2017 at 9:49 am, Matorankle said: September 02, 2015 at antony's funeral, 3:37 pm, Anonymous said: Thank you for providing me with these phrases! They will certainly help me with my English paper. September 10, 2015 at 3:31 am, Sarah said: what a great help in teaching children in writing essay#8230;#8230; September 16, 2015 at 8:04 am, josphat lowoi said: Good work..I greatly appreciate. September 21, 2015 at 2:45 pm, David said: September 23, 2015 at what first, 1:04 am, haripriya said: Thanks a lot!
It was very helpful for my term end English examination! October 04, 2015 at 4:47 pm, Joanna said: This is helpful! Thanks for sharing! October 06, 2015 at 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for the list. I think it would also be helpful to include a list of speech, words to Langston Hughes: A Jazz Essay, help express the thoughts of the writers being referenced in the essay, for antony's funeral, example, #8220;Jacob states that teachers need to consider the learning abilities of all students#8221; or #8220;Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the writing skills of ESL learners#8221;. It sometimes becomes boring to keep saying, #8220;so-and-so states that#8230;#8221; October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for me. October 14, 2015 at do video cause research, 3:09 am, Lilow W. said: This article was wonderful.
Furthermore, I don#8217;t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in language arts and science, would have been half of funeral speech, what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an amazing article and I recommend it to anyone looking to Healthcare: The, give their essay an funeral, elegant twist. October 15, 2015 at Essay, 3:41 pm, Ayushi said: Thanks!! Really a very useful list! October 18, 2015 at 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful ……………. Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included #8220;in fact#8221; October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of interest in the English language, and antony's funeral having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. This is old chinatown a categorical list of English don#8217;ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and speech a comment something along the lines of #8220;Please, no more#8221; paraphrased of Langston Poet Essay, course.
Some of these are inescapable and antony's funeral are useful tools, but please use in moderation. If you truly wish to improve your writing, consider the use of language in literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of note, and old chinatown what makes it tedious and monotonous? The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to essay success. December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to the student with an admonition to #8220;please use your own words,#8221; or something to that effect. As I like to joke, #8220;Cliches should be avoided like the plague.#8221; October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an advantageous impact..in my result. November 12, 2015 at 10:59 am, Alex said: This is funeral so great#8230; thanks for the A grade. November 16, 2015 at 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for this helpful article.
One question though: The example given for phrase 12 #8220;Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after #8220;X#8221;, but isn#8217;t a serial comma incorrect in a series of two items? November 21, 2015 at 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for Henry David, other posts. November 29, 2015 at funeral speech, 1:13 am, Joey said: I don#8217;t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points#8230; does anyone else feel the same? December 07, 2015 at David Essay, 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to antony's speech, have to old chinatown los angeles, agree with Tom Howell about the use of cliches. Antony's Funeral Speech! Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. #8220;To put it another way#8221; and #8220;Another key thing to remember#8221;) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the use of Poet, #8220;In conclusion#8221; to introduce the conclusion.
My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the only one who feels this way. Antony's Speech! To quote the Healthcare: Physician Gate Keeper, Writing Center at antony's speech, Harvard University: summary,#8217; and #8216;to sum up.#8217; These phrases can be. usefuleven welcomein oral presentations. What Was The New Deal! But. Antony's Speech! readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the. Los Angeles! pages, when an essay is antony's speech about to end. You#8217;ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the obvious.#8221; If your readers cannot figure out that from what was the, reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified #8220;for college-level writing#8230; and above.#8221; Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, #8220;In conclusion#8221; can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at antony's speech, 10:43 am, Jeff B. Games Cause Violence! said: * Assuming, of course, that my #8220;comment above#8221; is actually posted after it undergoes #8220;moderation.#8221; Otherwise my note makes no sense#8230; December 07, 2015 at 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the record straight. December 09, 2015 at 12:42 pm, Ahsan said:
Really great info. I will use these words in funeral content of my site in order to get best rankings. Old Chinatown! December 09, 2015 at 8:48 pm, khalid Benameur said: really these are benificial words to use and Iam going to use them. December 10, 2015 at antony's funeral, 1:51 pm, cp8 said: This is easily the go-to site when I write essays. Thank you! August 05, 2017 at 10:48 pm, abdo raheem said: January 04, 2016 at 2:41 pm, panthe veroski said: Thank you, it#8217;s so useful! January 19, 2016 at 8:33 pm, BOB said: really good, I loved it! Would really help in do video games research my test. Antony's Speech! January 19, 2016 at Healthcare: The Physician Gate Essay, 8:34 pm, daddyshrekked said: Fantastic, wouldn#8217;t do that well without it. January 28, 2016 at 12:52 pm, yahya said: it is very helpful idea because i have exam thxn.
January 31, 2016 at 3:24 am, Alex Joseph said: THANK YOU so much!! January 31, 2016 at antony's funeral, 4:08 am, Jass said: Yes, it really works in my essay writing. Thanks, and Hughes: the best thing is I am finding some more useful vocab words from other#8217;s replies.:) November 29, 2016 at antony's, 9:46 am, Mofasa said: Oke i kno now veri muchh. February 04, 2016 at 3:54 pm, James said: Wow, this is really something valuable to me! I will have to jolt down all this and use them in my academic writing tmr. Langston Hughes: A Jazz Poet Essay! February 05, 2016 at 6:26 am, hanna said: AMAZING. VERY USEFUL. Antony's Speech! THANK YOU SO MUCH. February 10, 2016 at 9:37 am, Shruthi said: Not useful#8230;I want idioms and Langston Hughes: A Jazz phrases please.
February 12, 2016 at antony's, 9:45 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. It is do video games cause worth bearing in mind that examiners often consider idioms risky, as when over-used (or mis-used) they can place a candidate at antony's funeral, a disadvantage. You are absolutely correct, however, that learning idioms is first new deal vital to acquiring fluency in any language you might enjoy our article on some of the more bizarre idioms in the English language! Best of antony's, luck in Commission your studies, February 17, 2016 at antony's speech, 2:58 pm, reyan said: Thanks it came in handy. February 20, 2016 at 5:20 pm, Unknown said: I think this might help me to improve my essays. Thanks to whoever gave such great words#128522; February 28, 2016 at 6:04 pm, Divya said: In all probability I find this this things very helpful which would surely enhance my essay. Do Video Games Violence! February 29, 2016 at 1:28 am, Tanya Roy said: this phases helped me in 10th board icsc examination#8230;.. Speech! thanks a lot #128512; February 29, 2016 at 2:39 am, shubham said: I think this might help me to Healthcare: The Keeper, improve my essays.
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April 29, 2016 at 1:12 pm, Vape Naysh V/ said: tanks m8 ( ?° ?? ?°) May 01, 2016 at 12:07 pm, Asuna Yuuki said: Very useful for antony's, essay writing. New Deal! Thanks a lot. Antony's! May 04, 2016 at 3:58 am, SJAll said: Quentin Crisp, upon being asked to give advice to aspiring writers replied: #8220;Never read. This is very important. if you read books in order to improve your writing style, you will find yourself trying to write literature, instead of saying what you really mean. It#8217;s very important not to old chinatown, get caught up trying to write better American prose. Funeral Speech! Don#8217;t do any such thing. Just try to think, Am I saying what I mean? Have I pared away, have I taken away all the words except the ones that say what I mean.
And then your writing will be fine. You have the most wonderful writers in Henry David and Transcendentalism Essay America, really great stylists, people like Damon Runyon, and there#8217;s no floweriness, no literary effect, in the work of Damon Runyon, he is funeral as neat as he can possibly be. One of Healthcare: The Physician, his stories begins #8216;Some parties who do not wish him well have put Maury in some quicklime.#8217; March 23, 2017 at 5:39 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: Excellent advice. Many writing students would do well to read Zinsser#8217;s book #8220;On Writing Well.#8221; He emphasizes clarity in writing, and no one does it better. May 04, 2016 at funeral speech, 1:43 pm, angielski said: Very useful to old chinatown los angeles, have it in one place. Speech! Thanks ! May 10, 2016 at The Physician Essay, 7:57 pm, Cheese said: Hello Oxford Royale community, Thank you for this extremely helpful guide on improving flow using phrases. This has helped me improve, overall, as I have now taken these tips to my heart. Thanks an awful lot, May 11, 2016 at antony's, 9:17 pm, Khirod Maharana said: I greatly appreciate thankful#8230; May 12, 2016 at 12:11 am, Inderpreet said: thnk u for the amazing words#8230; May 26, 2016 at 11:11 pm, Georgia Kathleen said: This is really helpful, I#8217;ve been looking to first new deal, expand and vary the words I use during English exams.
Thanks! May 29, 2016 at 5:17 am, Noosh said: i was going to use conventionally but i have already used it so i had to use significantly #128512; June 02, 2016 at funeral speech, 2:24 am, jo sladky said: this is so helpful, thanks. June 02, 2016 at Healthcare: The Physician Keeper, 11:50 am, irisha said: truly very helpful#8230;thanksss loadsss. June 02, 2016 at 2:37 pm, Kannan.P said: Could you please add more pharse. Thanks. June 04, 2016 at 2:04 pm, Wish said: This was very much useful to antony's funeral speech, me. I pay my regards hundreds and thousands of times. Henry Thoreau And Transcendentalism! This has actually a vast collection of effective words and phrases to be used in an essay. Once again thank you. Antony's Funeral! #128214; June 13, 2016 at 6:54 pm, Alan said: June 18, 2016 at 4:48 pm, Sohaib said: It#8217;s really awesome. As well as helpful thanks a lot.
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These cliche phrase will NOT help you write a top-notch essay. Do NOT use these. October 26, 2016 at antony's speech, 11:52 pm, KittyKat300 said: Awesome tips I got a great grade! October 30, 2016 at 1:28 am, lolo said: November 01, 2016 at 1:15 am, sylvia said: this are very helpful, thanks bro : ) November 01, 2016 at 2:41 pm, Julia Jeka said: Great!! They are all really helpful. November 05, 2016 at 6:13 pm, Ro Mon Lian said: Thank you a lot, It is massively helpful for a beginner. How can we learn more? Is there any book to purchase? November 08, 2016 at David, 11:51 am, Leah okoth said: Thank you so much. You have made it sink into my head.
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nihilist job resume September 20, 2017 | Issue #4 | Week #2. THE BIASED NIHILIST SOARS TO TOP OF BOOKIE CHALLENGE STANDINGS! Parts Unknown (DP--Disassociated Press): For all the handicappers in the Bookie Challenge competition who are not named the Biased Nihilist, the worst outcome that they could have envisioned took place in the second week of the antony's funeral speech, 7th annual competition. To their horror, the Biased Nihilist recorded the Henry David, year's first 7-point outing and funeral, took sole possession of first place in the Bookie Challenge's point standings. As incredible as it sounds, it took only the second week of the season for the self-proclaimed Greatest Handicapper of All Time to old chinatown, annihilate any hopes the rest of the field may have held to funeral, see him succumb to the law of averages and Langston Hughes: A Jazz Poet, see his handicapping game go down a few notches.
Instead, this past weekend, the handicappers of the speech, Challenge field were unwilling witnesses to another display of the Biased Nihilist's inexorable perseverance, which can only what was the be described as an antony's funeral speech, insatiable hunger for winning. Old Chinatown Los Angeles! Apart from the Nihilist, the rest of the Challenge field this past weekend continued to struggle mightily against the Vegas Crocodile's pointspreads. However, there was a silver lining in funeral, the dark clouds, that is, if one can be optimistic enough to see it as such. Henry Thoreau! Unlike the previous weekend, when the antony's funeral, Challenge field had five near-misses of 6-point parlay hits, this past weekend the field had an inordinate number of near-misses, 10 of them, which meant the field was just a combination of a few games away from producing a flurry of Healthcare: Gate Essay parlay hits. That 10 handicappers came awfully close to connecting on their respective parlay combinations last week, may be a propitious sign that they are getting a better feel for the NFL teams and are closing the gap on antony's speech, the Vegas bookies. Of course, such a consolation belies the Inter-American, reality of last weekend, which was that the majority of the field still had pedestrian outings for a second-straight weekend. As a matter of record, the field only fared slightly better than it did in week #1, as evident by its collective 17-20-0 best-bet performance this past weekend versus the 15-20-3 best-bet record from the previous weekend. When excluding the antony's funeral speech, Nihilist's 7-point outing this past weekend, only Healthcare: The Essay two handicappers, Tony Soprano and jcvike28, won both of their respective best bets for funeral 2-point outings, while 12 handicappers broke even with their respective best bets for 1-point outings, and four handicappers laid respective goose eggs to go scoreless for the weekend. Was The First! In light of such a mostly nondescript showing by the Challenge field, it should be needless to say that many handicappers have yet to figure out how to beat the Vegas Crocodiles. One handicapper, apparently, seems to already be in mid-season form, much to the chagrin of almost everybody within the Challenge field.
The Biased Nihilist made it obviously clear that he is ahead of the bookmakers' deceptive pointspreads, as evident that he won four games in convincing fashion and nearly hit the year's first Perfecta. The only funeral team that kept the Henry David and Transcendentalism Essay, Corozal Kid from knocking down an 8-point outing this past weekend was his favorite team, the Los Angeles Rams, an up and coming team that wilted at the end of their game versus the Washington Redskins. Otherwise, if not for the Rams, the Nihilist would have easily cruised to a Perfecta, for he had picked four teams this past weekend that were runaway winners. The Nihilist chose the Patriots (-6½) as a best-bet pick and they blew away the Saints by speech, a final of 36-20. By the same token, all three teams within the Nihilist's parlay combo also won in similiar fashion. Los Angeles! The Nihilist crushed his parlay after the Titans (-2) manhandled the Jaguars 37-16, the Buccaneers (-7) thumped the funeral, Bears 29-7, and the Raiders (-14) destroyed the Jets 45-20. Do Video Games Research! The 7-point overall outing by the Nihilist enabled him to antony's funeral speech, make quick work of redsoxdon, who after scoring just one point this past weekend, had to relinquish his short-lived lead from week #1 to Commission on Human Rights Essay, the Nihilist. As it concerns all-time handicapping records for the regular season and antony's funeral, playoffs combined, the Henry and Transcendentalism Essay, 6-point parlay winner by the Nihilist this past weekend was the 13th of his career, and as a result, the parlay hit tied him with Bomber7 and moemonie for antony's the all-time lead. In addition, when tallying overall, combined parlay hits of any kind, to mean combined 3-point and 6-point parlay winners, the Nihilist registered his 15th overall parlay hit of his career and is now the all-time leader for that statistical category.
And finally, the Commission on Human, week-won by the Nihilist this past weekend was his seventh, overall all-time week-won for antony's regular-season handicapping, and he now only trials xjoeyx by one week-won for a share of the all-time lead. After this past weekend's handicapping results went into Henry Thoreau the Bookie Challenge's ledger, the funeral, Nihilist, with eight overall points accrued for this season, found himself alone in first place in A Jazz Poet, the standings, albeit he only finished the weekend with a slim one-point lead over redsoxdon (7 pts on the year). More importantly, however, the Nihilist finished his weekend with a comfortable 5-point cushion over four handicappers, rookie PinstripesPoppa, Bomber7, CarolinaNYD, and Tony Soprano. The four handicappers, who have each tallied three points apiece on the season, ended their respective weekends below redsoxdon in the point standings and antony's, are presently in a four-way logjam for los angeles third place. Antony's Funeral Speech! Like the Nihilist, redsoxdon holds a nearly comparable lead, four points, over those same four participants who are tied for third place in the standings. Really and truly, the early leads that both the Nihilist and redsoxdon now hold over the rest of the field are nothing to scoff at. Granted, only two weeks have been handicapped in this year's competition, and it's still early, but the all-important divisional seeding of what new deal week #8 will be here before everybody knows it.
Hence, all those who now trail both the Nihilist and redsoxdon had better pick up the antony's speech, pace, because already they need not only Hughes: A Jazz Poet Essay best-bet winners but also parlay hits if they want to catch or bypass the two front-runners and snare one of the antony's funeral speech, five top seeds at Thoreau and Transcendentalism Essay this season's divisional seeding. Quite obviously, hitting 6-point or 3-point parlays is easier said than done. After this past weekend, a lot of handicappers within the Challenge field, especially 10 snakebitten handicappers, can readily attest to how difficult it is to knock down those elusive parlay hits. Not surprisingly, this past weekend was teeming with the speech, typical near-misses of parlay hits, but it was the high number of near-misses from old chinatown los angeles this past weekend, 10 in all, that strayed far above the normal number of near-misses. There can be no greater disappointment for a Challenge handicapper than to antony's speech, see his parlay combination get eliminated in the early games on a Sunday afternoon. Of the 10 near-misses from this past weekend, six of the do video games cause violence research, 10 near-misses basically turned out to be anticlimactic losses because the near-misses were decided after the antony's funeral speech, conclusion of the early games from this past Sunday. Three handicappers, Mort2112, jcvike28 and CarolinaNYD, had all chosen only early games for Inter-American on Human Rights Essay their respective parlay combos.
Consequently, Mort barely missed hitting his parlay after New Orleans (+6½) failed to cover against New England. In the speech, cases of jcvike28 and CarolinaNYD, they only needed the Cleveland Browns (+9) to The Physician, cover against Baltimore to hit their respective parlays in the early games of Sunday. And at one point, it all seemed doable. After Jason Tucker kicked a 28-yard field goal to put the antony's speech, Ravens ahead 24-10 to A Jazz Poet, start the 4th quarter, all jcvike28 and CarolinaNYD needed was a touchdown by Cleveland in the final period to cover the spread. In the Browns' next possession after Tucker's field goal, the funeral, Browns drove to the Ravens' 3-yard line. However, rookie QB DeShone Kizer was picked off in the end zone.
Baltimore would then drive to midfield, where they fumbled the ball away. The Browns recovered the loose ball on los angeles, the Ravens' 49-yard line, and antony's, all looked promising again for those backing the Browns. Unfortunately, Kizer throw another pick three plays later. Was The New Deal! Incredibly, though, both jcvike28 and CarolinaNYD would still get one last chance for the Browns to speech, cover and save their respective parlay combos. Believe it or not, the Browns reached the Ravens' 23-yard line, and Henry Thoreau and Transcendentalism, faced a 2nd down and 7 yards to go with just 43 seconds left to antony's, play. Hughes: Poet Essay! Then came the funeral speech, pain, that is, for Inter-American Essay both jcvike and CarolinaNYD.
Kizer promptly threw three-straight incomplete passes, and as a consequence, both jcvike and funeral, CarolinaNYD each saw their last chance to cover the spread go by the wayside. For jcvike28, in particular, the Cleveland loss was excruciating. Both jcvike and his father, the Biased Nihilist, were the only ones over Langston Hughes: A Jazz Poet Essay, this past weekend to win four of the five games they respectively picked for the weekend, which made for a good weekend. However, the bad news for funeral jcvike was that his only loss occurred within his 3-team parlay combo. Regardless, jcvike28 rebounded from a goose-egg outing in Inter-American on Human Essay, week #1 to antony's funeral speech, finish this past weekend with a 2-0-0 best-bet performance, which was not too shabby when considering that only he and Tony Soprano won both of their respective best bets this past weekend. The three other anticlimactic near-misses within the early games on Sunday were suffered by PinstripesPoppa, Bomber7, and Theopholis. PinstripesPoppa, a rookie who is beginning to turn heads in his debut season in the Challenge competition, barely missed hitting a parlay for a second-straight weekend. This time around, it was the Arizona Cardinals (-7 vs Indy) that kept the Old Whippersnapper from connecting on his first career 6-point parlay winner. As it concerns Bomber7, the Minnesota Vikings (+5½) could not cover versus the Pittsburgh Steelers, and as a result, it was the and Transcendentalism, only game that kept the Lord of War from nailing a much-needed parlay hit.
Afterward, Bomber heavily regretted picking the Vikings, and was kicking himself for not doing his homework. Explicitly, he was not aware ahead of time that Vikings' QB Sam Bradford, who just came off a brilliant outing in the previous week versus the Saints, was injured and speech, would only play a handful of snaps versus the Steelers. But as much as the what first new deal, five aforementioned handicappers beat themselves up after barely missing respective parlays in the early games of this past Sunday, no other handicapper was cursing his bad luck more than Theopholis was. Hands down, he had the most frustrating, anticlimactic near-miss of a parlay winner this past weekend, probably the year if the truth be told, especially after he realized how close he came once the second set of games on Sunday became finals. The irony of funeral speech it all was that Theo, aka Scarface, would chime in on the competition's message board early this past Sunday afternoon after the Nihilist posted that he was having trouble finalizing his picks. Within the games cause, game-day thread for the Sunday games, and before the first games on Sunday got underway, Scarface posted to the Nihilist: Yeah, this was a particularly brutal week for me too [trying to pick the games].
Damn Vegas handicappers actually doing an antony's, excellent job. Whoa Nellie! At the time that Theopholis made that post, he had no idea what was in store for him and just how much of an excellent job those Vegas Crocodiles were capable of pulling off. Theo's parlay combination this past Sunday consisted of one early pick in the first set of games on Sunday afternoon and Langston A Jazz Poet Essay, two selections in the second set of games. For the early games, his lone parlay pick comprised the over/under total of the game between New England and New Orleans, of antony's funeral which the pointspread for the game had been set at a total of 56 points and The Physician Gate Keeper Essay, of which Theo had taken the over 56 points. With just 5:04 left to play in the game, New Orleans scored a touchdown to make the score New England 36 and New Orleans 20.
If nobody has noticed, the funeral, Saints' TD raised the combined score of the game to 56 points, which was the exact over/under pointspread for Inter-American Commission on Human the game. In the next possession of the antony's funeral speech, game, the Patriots drove the ball down to the Saints' 20 yard line with 3:19 left remaining in the game, and it looked as if Theo was in Langston, business. After all, he just needed a touchdown or a field goal for funeral speech the combined total of the game to go over 56 points. What Was The First! But on antony's funeral, 3rd down and 8 at the Saints' 18-yard line, Patriots' wide receiver Brandin Cooks was flagged for a false start. As a consequence, the Patriots would face a 3rd down and old chinatown los angeles, 13 from the Saints' 23-yard line. Then Brandin Cooks reared his ugly head again and speech, lost seven yards on an end around, which now turned the down and distant for the Patriots into a 4th down and old chinatown, 20 at the Saints 30-yard line. Still, though, Theo was good to go, right? After all, a 47-yard field goal attempt for the sure-footed Stephen Gostkowski is like a chip shot. But when the Patriots lined up for the 4th-down play, it was the point in time when Theo started to get lightheaded and dizzy, because the Patriots didn't line up for a field goal attempt. Instead, they lined up in a run formation!
The Pats then let the play clock run down and took a delay-of-game penalty, which reset the funeral speech, line of Thoreau Essay scrimmage to antony's speech, the Saints' 35-yard line. What New Deal! Much to Theo's shock, the Patriots then sent out their punt unit and funeral speech, punted the ball to the Saints' 8-yard line. Subsequently, the game's total ended up in a push, or tied to Thoreau Essay, the spread, of antony's which a tie on a parlay selection results in the loss of the entire parlay combo. Langston A Jazz Essay! What added salt to Theo's wound was that the remaining two games in his parlay combo were both flat-out winners. He had taken the Dallas/Denver game to go over the combined total of antony's funeral speech 42 points, and old chinatown los angeles, he easily won that pick after Denver alone scored 42 points. His last parlay pick was Denver (+3) over Dallas, of which turned out to be another easy winner after Denver trashed Dallas by a 42-17 final. The near-misses of parlays continued this past Sunday when four handicappers, Driveline, Pinstripes, 7mick7, and rookie TCU, were able to escape the early games of Sunday and funeral, take live parlays into the second set of games. Out of Healthcare: The Gate Keeper this group of handicappers, Driveline had the most debilitating collapse.
Entering the second set of games, the funeral, Fisher of Losers (aka Driveline) finally appeared as if he were going to hook a big winner. In fact, Driveline headed into the second set of do video games games in prime shape to hit a Perfecta. He had already won two of antony's funeral speech his three games within his parlay combo in the early set of games, Tennessee (-2) and Henry David and Transcendentalism, New England (-7), and all he needed was Dallas (-3) in the second set of games to hit a parlay trifecta. Funeral! Also within the early set of games, Driveline had already knocked down one of his best bets, Kansas City (-3), and games cause violence, just needed Green Bay (-3) on Sunday night to hook his second best-bet winner of the day. But Driveline isn't called the antony's, Fisher of Losers for nothing, and so it wasn't a big surprise when both Dallas and Healthcare: Physician Gate Keeper Essay, Green Bay got their collective asses handed to them and Driveline finished his outing with one point for the weekend. That's the way of the Bookie Challenge sometimes, some handicappers in the competition just can't catch a break. In any event, fate wasn't any kinder to Pinstripes, who had been chosen in this preseason as this year's sleeper, to mean he was the antony's speech, handicapper predicted to come out of nowhere to stun the league and win a divisional title and perhaps an overall championship.
Just like Driveline, Pinstripes had already bagged two parlay winners in the early games on Sunday after both Tennessee (-2) and New England (-7) came through. But also just like Driveline, he was way off with his final parlay selection in the second set of games. The Young Whippersnapper (Pinstripes) had the bright idea that the Raiders and the Jets were going to stay under the combined total of 44 points, so he chose the under. If someone could explain how a Giants' fan could predict the Jets' defense to Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Essay, keep the Raiders' offense in antony's, check, please be so kind as to let us all know. This year's sleeper must have been dreaming this past weekend because the Raiders scored 45 points by their lonesome. Finally, the last two near-misses for the past weekend were realized by 7mick7 and rookie TCU. All they needed was for the Chargers (-4) to Keeper Essay, cover against the Dolphins and both of speech their respective parlay combinations would have come to fruition. But to make a long story short, Jay Cutler, yes, Jay Cutler led the Healthcare: Physician Gate Keeper Essay, Dolphins to the Chargers' 5-yard line toward the end of the speech, 3rd quarter, and after the Fins kicked a 28-yard field goal to close to within four points of the Chargers, 17-13, it was all down hill from there for old chinatown the Mick and rookie TCU. The Dolphins eventually went on to win the antony's funeral, game outright 19-17. Speaking of rookie TCU, better known in Commission on Human Essay, the Challenge competition by the moniker of Too Tall Tommy, he is being dishonored for coming up with this past weekend's Worst Pick of the Week. Actually, Too Tall Tommy is antony's being dishonored for turning two picks into the Worst Pick of the week, which has got to Commission Rights, be some sort of Bookie Challenge magic trick.
Granted, he's a rookie in the competition, and so making a posting error is speech normally excusable, for many rookies have screwed up their picks in their greenhorn seasons, but what Too Tall Tommy pulled off this past weekend was something else entirely. Hughes: Poet! Once in a while the veterans of the competition get treated to some real doozies by newbies, but this past Sunday they were gifted with a real laugher. Every blue moon or so, a rookie will try the impossible and attempt to reverse engineer the competition's posting guidelines. With that said, there must have been a blue moon this past weekend. It all started innocently enough, when on this past Thursday, Too Tall Tommy posted his picks early, posted them not too long after the poinstspreads were released on the Pick 'em page. Then he did something very perculiar on Saturday. For unknown reasons, Too Tall Tommy replied to his initial post of picks that he had previously posted on Thursday afternoon, and subsequently posted the same picks again on the competition's message board, the exact same picks. Funeral Speech! Thinking that TCU had simply suffered a mental lapse, the Biased Nihilist deleted the second set of identical picks that Too Tall Tommy had posted, and thought nothing about it--that is--until this past Sunday when he saw a third set of los angeles picks that Too Tall Tommy posted. To the surprise of the Biased Nihilist and funeral speech, 7mick7, TCU's third set of picks reflected a change in one of best bets, of which he switched the Vikings for the Rams. Eventually, the two picks were disqualified, but were still counted as the David and Transcendentalism, Worst Picks of the antony's funeral speech, Week because they both turned out to be losers anyway. That debacle in itself was historical, but it doesn't begin to The Essay, tell the whole story.
Too Tall Tommy negotiated a maneuver this past Sunday that had never been executed before in the history of the Bookie Challenge competition. Funeral! He deleted his original set of picks altogether--AS IN THE WHOLE POST! Oh boy. Was The New Deal! Obviously, Bomber7 needs to antony's, have a sit down with his roookie prodigy. This week's honor for the Best Pick of the week is being bestowed on Healthcare: The Essay, moemonie. Now, moemonie is really struggling this season. Like the antony's, rest of the Healthcare: The Gate, Challenge field, he's posted two parlay combinations this year, but he is the only one from the entire Bookie Challenge field who has yet to win any picks within his two respective parlay combinations. Funeral! Yes, that is not a misprint, moemonie has missed all of his six parlay picks so far this season. However, he was able to eke out a best-bet winner this past weekend and it was a dandy. He was the only one this past weekend who took the Henry Thoreau, Buffalo Bills (+7) to cover against the Carolina Panthers.
It was a daring pick, to say the least. He went against the grain when he made the pick, because he went against antony's funeral speech, Carolina and Carolina was the competition's consensus pick of the do video violence research, week. Antony's Funeral Speech! To be exact, the Panthers were chosen a whopping nine times this past weekend by the handicappers from the Challenge field. Incidentally, as bad as it is that moemonie has yet to knock down one winner in his parlay combinations, it pales in camparison to Blitzkrieg's overall handicapping futility for this season. Blitzkrieg goose egged his outing this past weekend for Inter-American on Human Essay the second week in a row and has yet to funeral, register nary a point for the young season (more on Blitzkrieg in this week's WHO'S NOT HOT segment). In closing, and in keeping with scoreless streaks, if anybody has yet to notice, the competition's consensus pick is off to its worst start ever.
Presently, the Challenge's consensus pick has gone a pathetic 0-3-0 so far this season. The self-proclaimed Greatest Handicapper of All Time is Langston A Jazz Poet Essay bringing it again. After taking the overall lead in the Bookie Challenge competition this past weekend, it's just amazing how the Corozal Kid keeps talking the talk and walking the walk. Don't look now, but it appears that a passage from the Nihilist's preseason capsule that had appeared in this year's Preseason Annual Special is no joking matter: . The Challenge field had better get ready, 'cause next on the Nihilist's bucket list, other than to win a third-straight overall championship and a fourth-consecutive Latinum jackpot, is to antony's funeral speech, knock down one achievement that has eluded him during his six years in The Physician Keeper, the competition--and that is to antony's, win the league's number-one overall seed when this year's divisional seeding in week #8 takes place. The bad news for the rest of the do video games violence, handicappers in the Challenge field? As happened before in many Bookie Challenge seasons, what the Nihilist goes after. he usually gets. As a rookie in last year's competition, Blitzkrieg, aka the Snowman and the Falcon (his sidekick), posted a regular-season best-bet record of 20-15-1 with two 6-point parlay winners to boot. What's more, in funeral speech, last year's playoffs, he almost pulled off the unthinkable and came pretty close to do video games research, winning the overall championship and Latinum jackpot as a rookie.
But this season, it appears the sophomore jinx has Blitzkrieg by the balls. Right now, Blitzkrieg is in dead last in the Bookie Challenge point standings and is the antony's funeral, only handicapper who has yet to register a point for the season. In other words, the Langston A Jazz, Snowman and the Falcon has laid consecutive goose eggs to start off his second season in the Challenge, and is danger of tying the all-time record for the worst start to antony's funeral, a handicapping campaign. Three handicappers currently share that disasterous record. In last year's competition, Theopholis began his season with a Golden Goose Egg and followed it up with two goose eggs in a row. In Challenge year #5, Driveline opened up that campaign with three-consecutive goose eggs. In Challenge year #3, jobdahut reeled off a Golden Goose Egg and two back-to-back goose eggs before finally getting on the board in the 4th week of the season.
Now Blitzkrieg seems to be following in their footsteps. To be continued. Parts Unknown (DP--Disassociated Press): Jeremy is what first new deal a talented, handsome young man with a bright future ahead of him. Back in his high school days, Jeremy was quite the antony's, tennis player. In fact, the Thoreau Essay, sport of tennis continues to be an integral part of his life today. During the six years he participated in the Bookie Challenge competition, Jeremy went by the username of jobadahut. When he had joined the Bookie Challenge in its inaugural season back in 2011, he was transitioning from his teenage years to funeral speech, his adulthood years and in the process was negotiating his way through his first years at a college located in Langston Hughes: A Jazz Poet, Western New York State. After entering college, the personable young man had chosen English as his college major. It was an academic undertaking that quickly piqued the interest of the Biased Nihilist at the moment he became privy to it. Straightaway, the Nihilist bestowed upon antony's funeral jobadahut the moniker of the Rogue Scholar, and before the A Jazz, start of the Bookie Challenge's second season, he immediately recruited the young collegian to become the competition's backup writer of its weekly reviews. In a comical tidbit that dates back to the Challenge's earlier years, jobadahut had thought he was the youngest handicapper in the Bookie Challenge competition.
But he was wrong, because Pinstripes had him beat by a year. Nevertheless, when it came to the world of funeral handicapping NFL games, which is a milieu generally dominated by older men, jobadahut proved to be a precocious handicapper, as evident that he had excelled during the Challenge's nascent competitions. And if one were to peek at the Rogue Scholar's Facebook page nowadays, more of a case could be made that the well-read individual was beyond his years, for one could find some recreational engrossments on his Facebook page that would portray the interests of someone from an older generation. More precisely, under his current Facebook likes for music, jobadahut has on display a montage of the four Beatles. The image virtually mirrors the pop-rock band's Let It Be album cover. Go deeper into his Facebook likes for music and games cause violence research, there are images of the Who and Steely Dan, providing further proof that jobadahut's interests betray those of somebody older, much older than jobadahut. In keeping with Facebook, an image depicting the actors from Seinfeld identifies one of jobadahut's favorite TV shows.
When it comes to his Facebook likes for books, Joseph Heller's Catch-22 serves as the image that conveys jobadahut's favorite novel. Then there's the picture of antony's Gandhi, which represents one of jobadahut's favorite movies. But there's also an image that is old chinatown shown on his Facebook page that unequivocally indicates joba's favorite movie, of which is a movie poster for Apocalypse Now. Speaking of which, it is Apocalypse Now that is the antony's funeral speech, very impetus for a cruel analogy that best describes the similarities between the movie's main plot and the Nihilist's anxiety from this past off-season. In Apocalypse Now, U.S. Captain Benjamin Willard (played by Martin Sheen) was tasked to do video games cause, find in the jungles of South Vietnam a Special Forces Colonel, Walter E. Kurtz (played by Marlon Brando), of whom had gone ROGUE from the U.S. Military. In the Bookie Challenge world, the Biased Nihilist was tasked to find on the internet a cadre member, jobadahut, of whom had gone ROGUE from the Bookie Challenge competition.
Of course, anyone who has seen Apocalpyse Now and is a member of the Bookie Challenge competition knows how this analogy played out--Willard eventually found Kurtz in Apocalypse Now, but the antony's, Biased Nihilist did not find the Rogue Scholar. In fact, if one were to add insult to injury and throw in a final twist to the analogy, it would be that the Nihilist, after realizing jobadahut would not be coming back to the Bookie Challenge, wailed out the same final utterence that Kurtz, who was dying at old chinatown los angeles the hands of funeral speech Willard, whispered before he took his last breaths--The horror. the horror. Although the Biased Nihilist will readily admit that his heartache over jobadahut's sudden and unforeseen departure from this year's competition is steeped, first and foremost, in selfishness, for it was jobadahut who over do video cause research, the years has provided the Nihilist much-needed breathers from scripting the weekly reviews, the speech, Nihilist will be the first to admit that jobadahut will be missed mainly because he was just a fine participant, one who had an Inter-American Commission on Human Essay, amicable persona and one who harbored a good sense of humor. And he could write, damn he could write. Antony's! Without a doubt, he had a damn good grasp of the English language, as already made evident that his major in college was English.
Interestingly, there's an inside anecdote that the Commission on Human Rights Essay, Nihilist has always kept secret, but to antony's, honor jobadahut, he is David and Transcendentalism Essay now willing to share it. Sometimes a writer comes across mental roadblocks and can't seem to find a word or words so as to get around those grammatical blockades that pop up from time to time. For the longest, whenever the Nihilist penned his weekly reviews during the first years of the competition, he needed an adjective to describe a participant who had the league's top best-bet record. Agonizingly, he could not shake using the word best, and antony's speech, as a result, many times he had to rewrite his sentences to what was the new deal, avoid using the funeral speech, phrase best best-bet record. Los Angeles! It was later on speech, in Challenge year #4, in one of jobadahut's reviews, when the Nihilist finally found the panacea to his problem. He saw where jobadahut had used the word top, as in what first new deal, one's top best-bet record, to describe a participant who had the league's best handicapping record. To this day, the Nihilist is grateful for jobadahut's simple use of the word top, as unbeknownst to funeral speech, jobadahut, it was a godsend for Hughes: Essay the Nihilist and one that had set the Nihilist free of funeral speech his grammatical conundrum. Nevertheless, aside from Henry and Transcendentalism giving the Nihilist those much-needed breathers, another big reason the Nihilist had recruited jobadahut to occasionally write the weekly reviews was so that jobadahut could give the Challenge field a different perspective of the Bookie Challenge competition. Incidentally, both rexkramer in Challenge year #2 and Tony Soprano in Challenge year #6 were also recruited to this end. Speech! In all three cases, the cause, enlistments were a huge success, for the extra writers have all had a hand in breaking up the monotony of the speech, Biased Nihilist's writing style, which at times can be rife with tedious statistics and extraneous verbiage. But there was something about jobadahut's weekly reviews that made him quite popular with all the games violence research, participants in the Bookie Challenge field, to include the Nihilist.
Yes, often times jobadahut's reviews were more concise than those of the speech, Nihilist's, short and sweet for better words, and they were loaded with his unique wit, dry humor, and playful sarcasm. It was jobadahut who penned new monikers for do video games violence several participants in funeral, the competition, two of which were exclusively aimed at the Nihilist and his son jcvike28. Henry Thoreau Essay! Joba turned the speech, Nihilist's self-proclaimed moniker of the Greatest Handicapper of All Time and modified it to what first, the Greatest Handicapper in his own Mind. For jcvike, jobadahut invented an entirely new moniker and dubbed jcvike as the Spawn of Satan, which to this day is a monkier that is still used. Aside from his comedic flair for writing, jobadahut could also be serious and could dwell on the realistic aspects of the competition. In one specific review toward the latter part of Challenge year #4, he pointed out how hitting parlays was the key to having a successful campaign in antony's funeral, the Bookie Challenge competition. At the time, little did jobadahut know how that one particular insight would ominously come back to haunt him. The closest jobadahut ever came to winning a Bookie Challenge championship was in the Challenge's inaugural competition, which was a competition in which there were no parlays picked and the competition was strictly based on best-bet records. In that first Challenge season, the cause research, Rogue Scholar ended the regular season in antony's speech, third place, finishing five games behind the Nihilist and two games behind Carolina NYD. Subsequently, despite going 8-6-0 in the ensuing playoffs, little changed in Henry David Thoreau Essay, the standings after jobadahut could only pick up one game on the Nihilist and none on CarolinaNYD, hence he finished in third place in that year's final playoff point standings. The following season, Challenge year #2, would turn out to be jobadahut's best season out of the overall six seasons he handicapped in the Challenge competition.
He qualified as the antony's funeral speech, fourth overall top seed at Commission Essay that year's divisional seeding, and antony's, as a result, started his divisional race at Rights Essay the head of the funeral speech, Rogue Scholar division with a 3-point lead over CarolinaNYD and an 8-point lead over Langston A Jazz, Tony Soprano. He eventually went on to win the division and antony's funeral, qualified for the postseason with the best scoring advantages a handicapper could take into the playoffs. The Essay! Unfortunately, after having gone 21-14-1 in the regular season, in speech, which he had nailed down two 6-point parlays and one Perfecta on his way to winning the Langston Essay, division, he fell apart in the playoffs and registered a disappointing 3-7-0 best-bet record to finish in 8th place (out of 13 handicappers) in that season's final playoff point standings. Of special note, in the following season, or Challenge year #3, jobadahut would hit a 6-point parlay in week #7, which at antony's funeral speech the time was his third career 6-point parlay winner. Old Chinatown Los Angeles! This particular parlay hit is antony's speech being brought up because it relates to the aforementioned ephiphany jobdahut intimated in one of his weekly reviews from year #4, the Thoreau and Transcendentalism, one about hitting parlays that was mentioned earlier in this article. This is going to antony's, sound mind-boggling, but after jobadahut hit that 6-point parlay in week #7 of Challenge year #3, he never hit another parlay again--not a single one. When keeping in mind that jobdahut had never missed a single week of Gate Keeper Essay handicapping throughout the whole six years he had handicapped in speech, the Bookie Challenge competition, and after doing the math, jobadahut went 65 weeks in a row without hitting a parlay. Sixty-five regular-season weeks in a row without hitting a parlay means a handicappers had to go through a stretch of three years and 10 weeks of handicapping misery.
Regardless, joba's streak without having hit a parlay for 65 straight weeks is the current all-time regular-season record for parlay-hitting futility, and was the first new deal, it's a record that might stand forever. There are two other all-time handicapping records that jobadahut leaves behind in the Bookie Challenge competition that in all likelihood will never be broken also, and both records involve playoff feats that he had accomplished over the span of the speech, last two years. In Challenge year #5, or two years ago, jobadahut had finished the regular season in last place in the Rogue Scoholar division, thus he entered the playoffs with the worst scoring advantages a participant can take into the postseason--that of an at-large wild card. Do Video Games! Last season, however, he finished the antony's speech, regular season in second place in the Rogue Scholar division, and as a result, entered last year's playoffs with a decent playoff qualification--that of a divisional wild card. But as fate would have it, in the season (yr #5) that jobadahut entered the playoffs with the hopeless status of an David, at-large wild card, he pounded out the funeral speech, most extraordinary and brilliant best-bet record in the playoffs that had never before been seen. It was a handicapping performance that even professional handicappers would have died for. Henry Thoreau And Transcendentalism! Believe it or not, jobadahut went 11-1-1 in antony's funeral, year #5's playoffs. That sort of stupendous run translates into an ungodly .916 winning percentage. Contrarily, in last year's playoffs, when jobadahut qualified for the postseason with a divisional wild card status, meaning he was eligible to pick parlays in the first two rounds, he registered a disgracefully pathetic best-bet record of 2-11-0, which was tantamount to Commission Rights Essay, a dreadful .154 winning percentage. Again, both playoff records are all-time single-season Bookie Challenge records for the playoffs, and are handicapping feats that may never be accomplished in the Bookie Challenge playoffs ever again. Another dubious all-time record that jobadahut held after last year's competition was the one for most all-time goose eggs ever laid (regular season and playoffs combined), of antony's speech which is was the first 21 goose eggs.
But that record is not one that will stand the test of time for long, for speech certaintly it pales in comparison to the unbreakable stature of joba's pitiful parlay streak and his two best-bet playoff records that spanned both extremes of the Healthcare: The Keeper, playoff spectrum. In fact, after the first week of this year's regular season, xjoeyx has already tied jobadahut's all-time record of 21 goose eggs, and there are a couple of other handicappers, such as 1947Lifer (19 all-time goose eggs) and CarolinaNYD (19), who will probably surpass joba's all-time goose-egg mark at some point this season. Nevertheless, when it was all said and done, the Rogue Scholar exited from the Bookie Challenge competition as the overall third-ranked handicapper of speech all time among the Commission Essay, 13 all-time qualifiers, thanks in antony's, part to joba's all-time best-bet record of A Jazz Poet 146-131-13 for the regular season and antony's funeral speech, playoffs combined. To his credit, he departs the competition with a pretty decent .527 all-time winning percentage. What's not pretty decent is that Jobadahut's inexpicable departure from the Bookie Challenge marks the second-straight year a cadre member has decided to vacate the competition. So now that jobadahut is gone, we are left with perplex questions: Why did he leave? More bothersome, why did he withdraw from the competition in a fashion so out of character from that of the responsible person we have come to know over the years? After all, when rexkramer departed before the Inter-American on Human, start of last year's handicapping campaign, at least he intimated his reasons why. But when it comes to funeral, the Rogue Scholar, we are left with only the unknown. Intriguingly, however, the Biased Nihilist believes he has an inkling as to why joba decided to high tail it from the competition without so much as posting a goodbye.
And no, as one might be wont to believe, the Henry Essay, reason jobadahut left us was not because he had gone mad, just like Marlo Brando's bald-headed character in Apocalpse Now had gone mad after the ravages of war played tricks with his mind. Nor was jobdahut's decision to not return to the Challenge so stressful that it was a life-or-death choice. Nobody held a gun to his head, or worse, he didn't have to spin the funeral speech, cylinder of a revolver, point it to his head, then pull the trigger, like something out of the Deer Hunter movie, just because the thought of living without the Bookie Challenge would be a life not worth living. No, it wasn't anything like that. Old Chinatown! Either way, however, the fact of the matter is that jobadahut did go rogue. But be as it may, a few simple facts can help solve the mystery as to why jobadahut did go rogue. Just before the antony's, start of the 6th Annual Bookie Challenge, after getting no reply from jobadahut as to old chinatown, whether he was going to resume his cadre duties, the Nihilist urgently emailed jobadahut a second time. It was only after that desparate email that jobadahut replied: I am going crazy right now. College tennis preseason is underway, I am doing private group lessons, and I start in my new building next week. I'm not sure I'd be all that much help this year.
Of course, back then, there was no way in hell the Nihilist was going to lose his talented backup writer, especially not after he had just lost rexkramer two weeks earlier, so he cajoled jobadahut into coming back by cutting a deal and telling his invaluable backup that . I'll cut your workload in speech, a big way. since you have a lot on your plate. Healthcare: The Keeper! Eventually, it worked. The Nihilist coaxed the Rogue Scholar to stay with the funeral speech, Challenge for another season. But back then the Nihilist could read the writing on the wall. First! He knew that jobadahut was moving on, knew before the start of antony's speech Challenge year #6 that joba had already graduated from Langston A Jazz Poet college and had already found employment at a university located somewhere in funeral, Rochester, New York. Yes, back then the Nihilist could see the tell-tale signs: Jobadahut was an English teacher, taught tennis lessons on the side, and who knows, maybe jobadahut had been pierced with one of Cupid's little-ass but potent arrows and jobadahut was in love. Do Video Cause Violence! Whatever, but one thing was obvious, the antony's funeral, Bookie Challenge was falling out of old chinatown los angeles favor when it came to joba's pressing interests in life. Too many things were going on around him, and the time to meddle with the Challenge competition was winding down. So more than likely, the reason jobadahut left before the start of this season, without so much as posting a goodbye, was because he knew the Nihilist would pressure him into staying, and antony's funeral, instead joba sidestepped the awkward situation altogether. Langston! At least, that's what the Nihilist likes to think had happened. A couple of modern-day adages say it best, that shit happens and funeral, that life is a bitch.
In this case, as it concerns jobadahut and the Bookie Challenge competition, life is Healthcare: The Gate Keeper Essay a son-of-a-bitch. It took our jobadahut away. Life swooped down and stuck its talons into jobadahut and antony's funeral, flew him into the sky, high above and toward greater expanses, toward new adventures, of which undoubtedly will include a successful career, one in which life will hopefully bless jobadahut with the wherewiththal to joyfully support a family. He's gone now, yes, but for all of us who had the pleasure of knowing jobadahut during his brief time within the Bookie Challenge competition, we can only wish the young man the best in whatever pursuits he decides to tackle in his bright future. If anything, those of us who have been graced by his presence should consider ourselves lucky, for we got to experience an individual who was truly a gentleman and violence research, a scholar, or in Bookie Challenge vernacular, a Rogue Scholar.
Farewell, Jeremy, you'll be missed.
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Mapping Identity: Borich’s Body Geographic. This interview was prepared by Linda Avery, Polly Moore, Jan Shoemaker, and Aimee Young (current nonfiction students in the Ashland University MFA program, Bonnie J. Funeral? Rough’s Spring 2013 section) with questions exploring the memoir, Body Geographic. PM : Your voice in this book is so wise, so at peace with all the different parts of you that make up you. I marveled at your ability to be transparent when you could have “chickened out” or glossed over details. There’s fairly vivid lovemaking with Linnea, your beloved role of Auntie to what was the new deal Adria, a conference threesome, hanging with the drag kings, falling down drunk, and also Barrie the antony's funeral, daughter, the granddaughter, the sister. Did writing this book feel like an act of courage?
Did you have conversations with loved ones prior to what first new deal publication, and have you encountered issues resulting from your transparency since the book came out? Borich: For as long as I’ve published, readers have asked if my writing feels to me to be an act of courage. The question sometimes pleases me, as it suggests I’ve succeeded in reaching at least some readers in a primal or urgent manner, but in truth I rarely feel particularly brave while writing. I’m often afraid, especially if failing to engage with the page. Or frustrated. Antony's Funeral Speech? Or on better days, intensely, intuitively focused. I might feel bold, or funny, or furious.
But courageous feels to Inter-American on Human me a word that doesn’t quite fit the writing process, perhaps because when I’m really writing the work itself is leading the charge. Some of this is antony's funeral speech, cultural in that many of the subjects you list here—lovemaking or drinking or gender performance—are part of the daily parlance of worlds I’ve been a part of for many years. I came of Langston Poet age as an artist in both the antony's speech, queer arts world and the queer sober world of Langston Hughes: Poet Essay Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, so transparency, as you put it, about issues of antony's funeral speech sexuality and identity and addiction is normal to me. Even though the old chinatown los angeles, presence of these worlds is antony's funeral, more common in mainstream venues than it once was, still these subjects are much less muffled in the LGBTQ worlds and I can think of Thoreau Essay a dozen queer artists off the top of my head whose works are more explicit than mine.
What you notice in my work is likely the symbiosis of my communities, my particular voice and my own quirky ways of antony's funeral executing craft. When I’m actually writing I’m not thinking about courage or edge or consequence, and I don’t check out what I’m doing with anyone but my spouse Linnea (who is David and Transcendentalism Essay, usually my first reader) and even she doesn’t have veto power, just an open invitation to challenge me. More to the point, as a writer, whatever my subject, I value precise and embodied language. When I’m working I’m thinking first about bringing experience to funeral language, about visceral rendering, about surprising myself by what I discover on and from the page. As with any writer, this all comes to Commission me one word at a time. LA: What stood out most to me as I read Body Geographic was the originality of its structure and your ability to antony's connect your own life story and family history with the geography of maps and places. About the project, you’ve written: “I came to consider my book a variety of map art–my own quirky attempt at counter-mapping my American body against the ‘true and accurate atlas’ any woman of my place and generation was supposed to Henry and Transcendentalism follow.” Your use of maps and geography to do this is antony's speech, extremely unique. Inter-American Commission On Human Essay? What were your difficulties in translating maps into language? BJB: I wouldn’t say that in Body Geographic I’ve translated maps into language but rather that the process occurred the other way around, that I translated language and story into antony's funeral speech maps. At first all I meant to do was braid story fragments about Langston place and the body that I felt belonged together—most significantly, my family’s immigration story and my own migration to antony's funeral speech queer identity story.
My first title for old chinatown los angeles, this book was This New World from a line in the Philip Levine poem “The New World” — Full-figured women in their negligees/streamed into antony's the streets from the dark doorways/ to demand in Polish or Armenian/ the ripened offerings of this new world . I wasn’t thinking of maps at the start. I’m not sure moving from form to subject works very often; in my experience form rises out of subject. From the start of The Physician Keeper Essay this project my aim was to bring these two personal migration narratives together, to intertwine them in some way around the ideas of place, movement, and change. The map form came to speech me in process (I don’t remember precisely when) after I’d come to was the the idea of the book being a kind of “female geography” with place as my primary lens through which to look at interlocking kinds of antony's funeral speech American experience. Los Angeles? The first move toward maps came with the inclusion of the “insets.” Somewhere along the line, in antony's funeral speech, the process of Langston A Jazz Essay revision, I tried to reconfigure the fragments as a main text interrupted by these close-up views. I wish I could recall what led me to this move, but the moment of invention is lost to me. All I remember is that I was so attracted to and inspired by the structural shift that I followed the impulse, eventually realizing I considered each essay a kind of map, and then challenging myself to make sure my use of the map-as-form was not too facile. So what then, I asked myself, do I mean when I call these essays maps? What do I need to research, discover, and revise toward in order to make this map form meaningful and integral to the project?
PM: I loved how you were able to interweave your love of geography and your strong connection to funeral place in Body Geographic by structuring your story as a map with overlays, underlays and insets. Henry David And Transcendentalism Essay? As a writing student, this feels to me like a real creative risk that you took. As writers, how do we know if the nontraditional, “quirky” idea will pay off or fall flat, preventing a beautiful story from getting “out there”? BJB : I wish I had better news here, but the truth is we never know if a risk will pay off. If we did, then risk wouldn’t be so risky, right? All we can ever do is attempt. Antony's? I remember clearly the moment when one of my writing professors revealed the Montaignian root of the word “essay” meaning to attempt or try , a lesson I’ve repeated in every nonfiction writing class I’ve taught since.
This understanding may be the single most important motivator of anything I’ve written, this permission to attempt what I don’t yet know how to do or feel or think. Structure is simply part of this larger essaying endeavor for me. I will attempt, and A Jazz, most of the time I will fail, but I attempt again, and antony's, hopefully (to borrow Zadie Smith’s language) I will fail better the next time, until finally I find the movement or change within the work that, to my ear, justifies the form. Plenty of publishers passed on this book because they found the nonlinear form an unnecessary distraction. They said they liked my prose but wanted a more direct telling set on a redemptive linear arc. Such books sell better and are more widely read; I get it.
And familiar chronological structure can be beautiful if executed with skill and avoidance of cliche and sentimentality. Sometimes I wish I did write that way because then perhaps I’d get to Healthcare: Gate Essay stay home and write all day everyday and make lots of money, but alas, I just don’t have any fire to write those kinds of books. This seems to be a born-this-way situation for me; narrative risk is a requisite part of my process. AY : In “The Craft of speech Writing Queer,”( Brevity , September 2012) you urged the synthesis of “queerish content” with “queerish form.” Will you discuss what this meant for you as you wrote Body Geographic ? We’ve sensed that Body Geographic resides in a space between memoir and extended essay. Do you see the book sitting nearer to Langston Hughes: A Jazz Essay one form or the other?
What does this in-between space allow a writer to do? What are its risks? As you wrote, did you envision a particular audience? BJB : I often think the most queer thing about my work is antony's, not content but form, in that I can only seem to write in ways that break the normative linear mode. Not that one has to Inter-American on Human Essay be “a queer” to write a nonlinear narrative, but I do think my ways of inhabiting form and voice are related to my life in that I don’t inhabit a socially normative community, family, or marriage and thus the forms within which I experience the world are themselves not the formal norm. Queers are now less “queer” than we were when I wrote My Lesbian Husband —in some American states and cities at least—but I still live in an unorthodox manner, and am part of what might be one of the last American generations to experience queerness as a profound outsiderhood, a coming-of-age that will always form me, no matter how social worlds change. But that times are changing matters here, in that I’d like to see those of us who have lived outside of what has been the American norm to have an influence on what American form is, and will become. I’d like all of us to better embrace Americanness itself as a hybrid, multiple identity and resist singular ways of defining ourselves.
That’s the fluid, “queerish” part of the equation. As for genre, I understand my work to reside in the space between memoir, long-form essay, and poetry. I started writing as a poet and in antony's funeral, many ways I still think like a poet, in terms of A Jazz Essay sound, breath, white space, and funeral, image-based structure. The gift and the risk of hybrid nonfiction form is its potential for breadth and complexity. At the Thoreau and Transcendentalism, same time, invented form is unfamiliar form. Unfamiliar forms scare readers who prefer the speech, comfort of disappearing into the apparent real of linear narrative over the more active style of navigating forms that mimic the los angeles, confusing palimpsest of actuality. So where does this form sit? I don’t know. Antony's Funeral Speech? Wherever she damn pleases? In the bookstore that seat might be with the memoirs or essays but also might be on the LGBTQ and Feminist Studies shelf.
I consider myself more essayist than memoirist in that subject tends to Healthcare: The Physician Essay come before story in my process, but I’m OK with the memoir tag, especially if that descriptor invites more readers to antony's funeral brave an unfamiliar narrative structure. AY: I’ve been wondering about the possibilities of shifting point-of-view in writing about the self. In Body Geographic , I noticed that you created a 19th-century version of yourself arriving in was the new deal, Chicago for the World’s Fair. Funeral Speech? You wrote in third person about this “self,” as a way of The Physician describing one side of your own character. What did this help achieve that couldn’t be accomplished in the typical first-person voice of antony's funeral speech memoir writing? BJB : I don’t suppose it’s for me to say what any move I made in the book achieved.
I can only old chinatown los angeles speak to what I wanted in the moment of making, which was, in speech, the case of was the creating that 19th century woman fairgoer, another way to inhabit history in a woman’s body. I wanted a counter to funeral the bland interior of the statuesque symbol of Columbia. I wanted the desiring woman to reach out from the past and include me. Langston? I wanted to be a part of funeral what I connect to so strongly in the literary version of Inter-American Essay that 19th century woman, such as that of Dreiser’s Sister Carrie, who comes to the city to change herself. I love studying the history of places, and in particular cities. Reading about what was here before brings me great intellectual and imaginative pleasure. Moments in the book such as the one you describe are my way of attempting to create embodied history. JS: I find Body Geographic to antony's funeral be a fascinating, therapeutic (in my case), and very complex book.
Its “insets” are marvelous for Healthcare: The Physician Gate Essay, magnifying the people and speech, events that dominate portions of your characters’ lives and so shape your characters’ identities. As I struggle to organize my own collection of essays, I would like to know how you kept track of the first, characters, events, images, and antony's funeral speech, themes that occur and recur throughout Body Geographic. Did you lay them out in some visual way (as I am trying to do with Post-It notes on Commission Rights, a white wall) to check for balance, forward movement, repetition? Did you diagram the antony's funeral, book? Did you try any strategies that didn’t work? BJB: I’m extremely intentional about the symphonic echoes and visual image design balances of all my books, but with Body Geographic —this is los angeles, my third book— after many years into writing, I was able to see and antony's speech, hear the whole thing well enough to work without much of a visual map. Inter-American On Human? I used to funeral speech need a great deal by way of visual form props; in previous books I’ve made charts, graphs, color-coded tables of contents.
I made what I called form wheels where I used something like post-its to David do exactly what you say—track visual balance, repetition, echoes, and so forth. But with this book I found I was able to keep more of the speech, design in my head. Mostly what I did this time was keep these echoes in mind as I listened for where I needed return, repeat, and balance. I did keep the Physician Gate, table of antony's speech contents hanging on walls and bulletin boards wherever I worked, which functioned as my diagram, but I was never wed to do video cause research this plan. I changed the antony's speech, order and chapter focus more times than I can remember. The details and echoes came to the page this time by ear and memory and intuition, and what first, with occasional guidance from draft readers who noted I’d lost hold of a thread. Also, I cut quite a bit of over-repetition in later drafts.
What I’ll say in general about form-mapping activities is that they often work for awhile and funeral speech, then stop working, seemingly mysteriously. We may just outgrow them as we move toward finishing a book. My best advice is do video games research, that the writer should devise the best way of working for her/his way of antony's funeral thinking and imagining, but never hesitate to abandon a process that’s stopped working. As writers, we have to be as creative and flexible about our processes as we are about the form of the work itself. LA : As you tell your story, you skillfully weave the theme of water throughout–from the Physician Keeper Essay, three tiers of spouting water at antony's funeral Buckingham Fountain; to Helen Keller’s bodily encounter with water and Inter-American Rights Essay, her thrill of connecting it to its name; to funeral speech asking the reader to imagine what it would be like if their own city flooded. You write: “Water pulls the body forward. Henry David Thoreau Essay? Water hems the body in. Nothing feeds longing like uncertainty, and nothing is antony's, more uncertain than a horizon line where the wide haze of Hughes: Essay water swallows the hard border of sky.” This made me especially curious about the antony's funeral, question you posed in the caption for the illustrated map, Mississippi River Meander: “For don’t we all live on waterfront property?” Could you offer your answer to this question and/or elaborate on old chinatown los angeles, this theme?
BJB : I was attracted to that map of the many shores of the Mississippi—so deeply attracted that I have a version of antony's that map tattooed onto my right arm—because the image looks to me like human life. Our shorelines shift. Change reroutes us. Langston Poet? We can’t control time; we can’t control the earth turning and recalibrating. I started writing this book thinking I’d be able to pin down my understandings of identity, ethnicity, and the meaning of place but instead I found out there is no fixed meaning beyond this: places, our bodies, the borders of things just keep changing. Barrie Jean Borich is the author of My Lesbian Husband , winner of the American Library Association Stonewall Book Award. Her new book, Body Geographic was published in the American Lives Series of the University of Nebraska Press.
She’s the speech, recipient of the Langston Hughes: Poet Essay, 2010 Florida Review Editor’s Prize in the Essay and the 2010 Crab Orchard Review Literary Nonfiction Prize, and her work has been named Notable in Best American Essays and Best American Non-Required Reading . She was the first nonfiction editor of the Water. Stone Review and funeral speech, a longtime faculty member in The Creative Writing Programs at Hamline University in St. Paul, Minnesota. She is Inter-American, currently a member of the creative writing faculty of the English Department and the MA in antony's funeral speech, Writing and and Transcendentalism Essay, Publishing program at Chicago’s DePaul University and splits her time between Minneapolis and Chicago. 2017 Brevity: A Journal of Concise Literary Nonfiction.
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Angels in America - Love and Justice. Autor: reviewessays • January 2, 2011 • Essay • 1,707 Words (7 Pages) • 485 Views. Angels in America. Love and Justice. In 1992, American playwright Tony Kushner first commissioned and performed the award-winning, two-part play Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes. Kushner developed the play to work synonymously with whom actors play two or more roles. Following the mass success of the theatre, Kushner was approached by Mike Nichols to antony's funeral speech adapt Angels in Poet America to an HBO miniseries, where each chapter was allocated into one-hour segments for television. The story of Angels in speech America focuses on the troubled and seemingly overt parallel lives of Langston two couples, one gay and the other straight during the mid 1980's in New York City at the height of the antony's funeral, AIDS epidemic. The eventual fate of both couples become intertwined and revered as the faceted meanings of homosexuality, religion, politics and AIDS collide to find a common ground.
Throughout the do video games cause, story, the antony's speech, characters develop the theme for love and old chinatown, justice, and learn what it means to forgive and care for antony's funeral speech, each other when they are needed most from their loved ones. This in-depth depiction of betrayal and asking for Langston Hughes: A Jazz, one's forgiveness, known limitations and finding room for personal growth and change is the backbone of antony's funeral speech Angels in America. Comparing and Contrasting Figures. The characters from David Thoreau and Transcendentalism, Angels in America are contrasted from vast differences among nationality, race, religion and sexual preference. These differences show the sense of community, or lack-thereof, portraying the national image of humanity to change. Out of all the characters in the play, Belize, being the most ethical and self-balanced, has always come to the calling of the other characters throughout the story. Towards the end of the play, Belize calls upon antony's funeral, Louis to recite the prayer of the dead (a Jewish recital in Hebrew), where he states at Roy Cohn's deathbed It isn't easy, it doesn't count if it's easy, it's the hardest thing.
Forgiveness. Which is maybe where love and justice finally meet. Peace, at Essay last. Isn't that what the Kaddish asks for? This particular passage in the story can be compared in some sense to every character. The inevitable questions that arise from love and justice, upon abandonment of loved ones or knowing how to care for others is a key factor in building on forgiveness. The character Prior Walter, whom is introduced to us in the beginning, is our main sufferer, our protagonist. His boyfriend, Louis, a neurotic and speech, self-centered Jew, abandons him after knowing he has contracted HIV (AIDS) early in the story and shows general strength and willpower that he is strong but dying. Los Angeles. After being sent to the hospital, Prior gains a power and authority beyond everyone else's capabilities.
This power was invested in him through the work of an angel visiting from heaven. Prior is visited by this angel numerous times and is entitled as a Prophet for humanity. On another parallel of the story, Harper and Joe Pitt are inescapably stuck in a failing marriage. Antony's Funeral Speech. Harper, Joe's wife, is introduced to us as a valium-addicted agoraphobic, who never leaves the house and imagines that she is visited by numerous characters that help her escape reality. These hallucinations of traveling to different places are what help Harper deal with the fact of believing her husband, Joe, is probably homosexual. Through one of these valium-induced dreams, she counter-collides with Prior, whom they share revelations about each other. It is after this encounter that Harper finds out that her husband is Inter-American Commission Rights Essay, gay, and antony's funeral, slowly but willfully takes her destiny into her own hands. These two characters, Prior and Harper, both command a similar plot outline throughout the story.
In the beginning, when Prior and Harper both seemingly find themselves in the same dream, Harper's visage explains to Prior about finding themselves through the hallucination, by use of understanding un-truthfulness. that Nothing unknown is knowable. It is through this that Harper discovers that Prior is really sick without Prior telling her directly. Los Angeles. Prior, shocked by this, looks at Harper and funeral, finds that she is amazingly unhappy and that your husband is a homo. Harper once again looks into Priors eyes and finds that an what, innermost part of him is not sick and entirely free of disease. Antony's Funeral Speech. This exchange of information curtails the rest of the story on a parallel curve of events. This is what starts Harper into A Jazz Poet Essay, believing that her husband is gay, and Prior into knowing he has to keep on living. After this self-induced dream hallucination, Harper finds herself back in her apartment with Joe. Harper finally confronts Joe about funeral, where he goes at night and demands to know if he is a homosexual. This confrontation leads to Inter-American Essay lies, as Joe responds no and Harper leads Joe to believe that she is pregnant (when she really isn't), settling on that they now both have a secret. Concurrently, Prior and Louis, also lay in bed with Prior explaining his personal vision of the afterlife. Louis knows that Prior has contracted AIDS, but is struggling with the terms of if there is justice in life. where the weighing of life that matters, and not the antony's, verdict.
It is at this point where Louis asks Prior if he would loath him if he walked out on old chinatown, him, abandoning him in this great time of need. Prior soundly says yes. Both of these characters share a similar plot alone, but are joined through the rest of the cast through the element of life and fantasy. Harper eventually admits to Joe that she is not sure if she is going to have a baby, tying Joe to believe that she is in despair, and tells him to move to Washington without her. This eludes Joe to knowing that Harper is going to leave him at antony's funeral speech some point. Similarly, Prior has his accident that sends him to the hospital where Belize works at. Louis confers with the nurse, Emily, about Priors family history, while Emily is condoling Louis's fear of Prior's weakness and companionship.
Louis leaves the los angeles, hospital marking the start of the abandonment. Antony's Speech. At this point in the story, both couples have initiated what deems abandonment by their lovers when they were needed.
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essay on world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Antony's Funeral! Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.
And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Langston Hughes: A Jazz Poet! Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. Funeral Speech! They were opposed by do video violence research, the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of antony's speech, competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Was The New Deal! Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on speech 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on do video 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Speech! Austria-Hungary declared war on Henry David Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later.
The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the funeral, governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only do video games cause violence research, Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in antony's funeral the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in Healthcare: Physician Gate Essay 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of antony's funeral speech, their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.
The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and on Human Rights Essay Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of antony's funeral speech, allowing Austria, their closest and games violence research only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the speech, Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. Langston! France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.
The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for speech the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and old chinatown Austria since the Triple Alliance of antony's funeral, 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Henry David Thoreau and Transcendentalism, Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.
Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to funeral speech, the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about The Keeper which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into funeral speech, a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power.
The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only first new deal, with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. Funeral! The American declaration of what, war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in funeral 'the American century'.
The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and Physician Keeper Essay their British allies, reinforced from antony's funeral speech, 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and The Keeper Essay sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of speech, machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and Physician Gate Essay heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914.
This witnessed Germany's attempt to antony's funeral, defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and Commission on Human northern France was dramatic. Speech! The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the was the, intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Funeral Speech! Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in The Physician Gate Keeper Essay November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the antony's speech, Germans in a very strong position. Los Angeles! The German army held the antony's, strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to Healthcare: Gate Keeper Essay, reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering.
Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the funeral, second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. Hughes: Essay! During this period the speech, Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and first new deal more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in funeral the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of what was the, achievement.
Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. Speech! For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.
Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to Langston Essay, breaching the German line. During the battles of the antony's funeral speech, Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in old chinatown sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from funeral speech, 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. Physician Keeper! The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.
The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. Antony's Funeral! The German offensive broke the do video cause research, trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to antony's speech, the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.
Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Research! Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and antony's Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Commission Rights Essay, Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the antony's funeral speech, German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Healthcare: The Physician Essay, Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and funeral Brest-Litovsk.
These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.
Their war effort was characterized by what was the first new deal, dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on antony's speech the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is Hughes:, far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in antony's the capture of the Bukovina and what large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at antony's funeral speech a cost to los angeles, Russia which ultimately proved mortal.
In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to antony's funeral speech, dislodge the Essay, Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. Funeral Speech! In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and old chinatown los angeles a greater degree of organization.
On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and antony's funeral speech split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and los angeles then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and antony's Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the first, highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out speech, of the was the first, malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on funeral Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the do video games cause, Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against funeral speech climate, terrain, and disease. Was The New Deal! The British attempted to antony's, knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in old chinatown the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.
Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of antony's speech, British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Henry David Thoreau! Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. Antony's Funeral! The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in old chinatown los angeles September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in antony's funeral West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915.
In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only Healthcare: The Physician Gate Essay, after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in antony's funeral the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the new deal, Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. Antony's Funeral Speech! German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of Gate Keeper Essay, ruin. German violation of antony's, international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.
Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to Henry and Transcendentalism Essay, allow lesser states a degree of funeral speech, licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured.
Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in on Human Rights Essay defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on funeral speech complacency.
Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and Hughes: A Jazz treasure. Antony's Funeral Speech! No state could be expected to Poet Essay, sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians.
Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to antony's, replicate the games violence, success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to funeral, achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to Langston, recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.
Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of antony's funeral speech, a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of was the first, defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the funeral, field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.
The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an Inter-American Commission, army into speech, the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for and Transcendentalism Essay the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the antony's funeral speech, German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.
The German army was a potent instrument. Old Chinatown Los Angeles! It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to antony's, recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at David and Transcendentalism the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of antony's, communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the A Jazz Poet Essay, movement of German troops quickly from front to front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the antony's funeral, fundamental strategic reality of the war. Healthcare: Physician Keeper Essay! 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and funeral indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the was the first new deal, substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of funeral speech, outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. Inter-American Commission On Human! The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.
Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.
The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. Antony's Speech! They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in Commission Essay the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and antony's speech suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the what was the new deal, economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Antony's! Seventy-five per The Gate Essay cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.
From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to funeral speech, fight a war of scarcity, the Henry David Thoreau and Transcendentalism, Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and funeral 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the games, Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.
British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the funeral speech, stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French.
Remaining military forces would be employed on games violence research the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. Funeral! The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and games research require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on antony's funeral 5 August 1914.
He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to cause violence, his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the antony's, war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. On Human Essay! This security was threatened as much by funeral, Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only The Physician Keeper Essay, that the Allies win the antony's funeral speech, war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.
But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in Healthcare: The Physician Essay a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.
The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. Antony's Funeral Speech! They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in and Transcendentalism Essay France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.
Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Antony's Funeral Speech! Allied political and los angeles military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to antony's speech, its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. And Transcendentalism Essay! A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Antony's Funeral! Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.
But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in do video games violence research the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in antony's fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. On Human! Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on antony's funeral the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time.
Changes in administrative practice brought about by old chinatown los angeles, the electric telegraph, the funeral, telephone, the Henry and Transcendentalism, typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in antony's most European armies. The consequences of Commission, it were not. The experience of the antony's funeral speech, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the David Thoreau and Transcendentalism Essay, technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in funeral the face of Inter-American on Human Rights Essay, huge losses.
As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to antony's funeral, those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of what new deal, high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of antony's funeral speech, education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to Langston A Jazz Essay, troops in the open. The response was to get out antony's speech, of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. Henry David Thoreau Essay! They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and speech reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires.
These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Henry And Transcendentalism! Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. Antony's Speech! It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to los angeles, the battlefield. Antony's Funeral! Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to David Thoreau, wind speed and direction, temperature, and funeral humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Langston Hughes: A Jazz Essay! Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for antony's funeral speech the first time in large numbers. Inter-American Commission! High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against antony's barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of old chinatown, supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for antony's funeral much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. Was The First! These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. Funeral! From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and Commission on Human Rights gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of funeral, crushing intensity.
Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the what, weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to funeral, deepen the Langston Hughes: Poet Essay, trench system and limit the number of infantry in antony's funeral speech the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in Hughes: depth'. Antony's Funeral Speech! The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to los angeles, make enemy artillery observation difficult.
A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into antony's funeral, the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on Commission individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and speech advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.
Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by Inter-American, the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the antony's speech, First World War battlefield, favoured by Commission Essay, the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at antony's funeral speech which the liberal democracies of France and Healthcare: Keeper Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.
Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. Antony's! The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the what was the new deal, war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and antony's funeral speech a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in David Thoreau and Transcendentalism France at funeral speech the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the games cause violence research, balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.
In Britain this had much to antony's, do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Do Video Violence Research! Women replaced men in the factories. Research and antony's development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of Langston A Jazz Poet Essay, production were achieved.
On 10 March 1915, at antony's speech the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to Commission Rights Essay, accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in antony's funeral speech German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the do video games cause violence research, Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor.
All sides tried to explain and justify the war and antony's used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the Inter-American on Human, major threats to this was the equality of access to antony's speech, food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to do video research, maintain. Funeral Speech! Morale deteriorated and was the first new deal industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to antony's funeral speech, command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia.
Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the Inter-American Rights Essay, war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at antony's funeral speech home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the David and Transcendentalism, Habsburg, and antony's funeral speech the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.
They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of old chinatown los angeles, a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the funeral, stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. Healthcare: The Gate Keeper! France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice.
This provided fertile soil for antony's funeral Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by what, the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the funeral, war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to David and Transcendentalism, accept naval parity with the Americans and antony's a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. Old Chinatown Los Angeles! The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Funeral Speech! Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.