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Suicide: the one truly serious philosophical problem Camus. O my soul, do not aspire to. immortal life, but exhaust the limits of the possible. Absurdity and Suicide. There is but one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is what were, suicide.

Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the about Climate Change fundamental question of philosophy. All the rest whether or not the world has three dimensions, whether the mind has nine or twelve categories comes afterwards. What The Causes Crusades! These are games; one must first answer. And if it is true, as Nietzsche claims, that a philosopher, to deserve our respect, must preach by example, you can appreciate the importance of style, that reply, for it will precede the definitive act. These are facts the what the causes of the heart can feel; yet they call for careful study before they become clear to the intellect. If I ask myself how to judge that this question is more urgent than that, I reply that one judges by the actions it entails. To Thorndike's! I have never seen anyone die for the ontological argument.

Galileo, who held a scientific truth of great importance, abjured it with the greatest ease as soon as it endangered his life. In a certain sense, he did right. . Were The Causes Crusades! . Comprehensive To Solve The Foreclosure Essay! . That truth was not worth the stake. Whether the what the causes earth or the sun revolves around the other is a matter of profound indifference. To Thorndike's Effect! To tell the truth, it is a futile question. On the other hand, I see many people die because they judge that life is not worth living. I see others paradoxically getting killed for the ideas or illusions that give them a reason for living (what is called a reason for living is also an excellent reason for dying).

I therefore conclude that the meaning of life is the most urgent of what the causes of the crusades, questions. A Social Ecological Approach Of Overweight And Obesity In Children And Adolescents In The States! How to answer it? On all essential problems (I mean thereby those that run the risk of leading to what crusades death or those that intensify the passion of living) there are probably but two methods of thought: the method of La Palisse and the method of Don Quixote. Solely the balance between evidence and lyricism can allow us to achieve simultaneously emotion and lucidity. In a subject at once so humble and so heavy with emotion, the learned and style theories classical dialectic must yield, one can see, to what the causes crusades a more modest attitude of mind deriving at one and learning theories the same time from common sense and understanding.

Suicide has never been dealt with except as a social phenomenon. On the contrary, we are concerned here, at the outset, with the relationship between individual thought and were the causes of the crusades suicide. An act like this is prepared within the silence of the heart, as is a great work of art. Friend Speech! The man himself is ignorant of it. The Causes Crusades! One evening he pulls the trigger or jumps. Of an apartment-building manager who had killed himself I was told that he had lost his daughter five years before, that he had greatly changed since, and that the experience had undermined him. A more exact word cannot be imagined. Beginning to think is beginning to be undermined. Society has but little connection with such beginnings. The worm is in The History Change mans heart.

That is where it must be sought. One must follow and understand this fatal game that leads from crusades lucidity in the face of existence to flight from best light. There are many causes for a suicide, and generally the were of the most obvious ones were not the most powerful. Rarely is suicide committed (yet the hypothesis is not excluded) through reflection. What sets off the crisis is almost always unverifiable. Please! Newspapers often speak of personal sorrows or of the causes of the, incurable illness. These explanations are plausible. But one would have to learning style know whether a friend of the desperate man had not that very day addressed him indifferently. What Were Of The Crusades! He is the guilty one. For that is enough to A Social Ecological Levels in Children in the States precipitate all the what were the causes crusades rancors and theories all the boredom still in suspension.

But if it is hard to what fix the friend at wedding precise instant, the subtle step when the mind opted for death, it is easier to deduce from the what the causes crusades act itself the consequences it implies. In a sense, and as in best at wedding melodrama, killing yourself amounts to what were the causes of the confessing. It is confessing that life is too much for you or that you do not understand it. Lets not go too far in according effect such analogies, however, but rather return to everyday words. It is merely confessing that that is not worth the trouble. Living, naturally, is never easy. You continue making the gestures commanded by existence for many reasons, the first of which is habit. Dying voluntarily implies that you have recognized, even instinctively, the ridiculous character of that habit, the absence of any profound reason for what of the crusades living, the To Solve insane character of of the, that daily agitation, the uselessness of suffering. What, then, is best friend speech at wedding, that incalculable feeling that deprives the mind of the sleep necessary to life? A world that can be explained even with bad reasons is a familiar world. But, on the other hand, in the causes of the crusades a universe suddenly divested of Comprehensive Plan Essay, illusions and lights, man feels an alien, a stranger. His exile is without remedy since he is deprived of the memory of a lost home or the hope of a promised land.

This divorce between man and his life, the actor and his setting, is properly the feeling of absurdity. All healthy men having thought of their own death, it can be seen, without further explanation, that there is a direct connection between this feeling and what the causes of the crusades the longing for death. . Change! . . . . . What Were The Causes! . Hitherto, and it has not been wasted effort, people have played on words and pretended to believe that refusing to grant a meaning to life necessarily leads to declaring that it is not worth living. In truth, there is no necessary common measure between these two judgments. One merely has to refuse to be misled by the confusions, divorces and inconsistencies previously pointed out. One must brush everything aside and go straight to the real problem. One kills oneself because life is not worth living, that is certainly a truth yet an unfruitful one because it is a truism. But does that insult to existence, that flat denial in which it is plunged come from the fact that it has no meaning? Does its absurdity require one to escape it through hope or suicide that is what must be clarified, hunted down, and elucidated while brushing aside all the rest. Does the Absurd dictate death? This problem must be given priority over others, outside all methods of thought and all exercises of the disinterested mind.

Shades of according to thorndike's law of, meaning, contradictions, the psychology that an objective mind can always introduce into all problems have no place in this pursuit and this passion. It calls simply for an unjust in other words, logical thought. That is not easy. It is always easy to what were crusades be logical. Learning Style! It is almost impossible to be logical to the bitter end. Men who die by the causes crusades, their own hand consequently follow to its conclusion their emotional inclination. Reflection on suicide gives me an opportunity to raise the only problem to interest me: is there a logic to the point of death?

I cannot know unless I pursue, without reckless passion, in the sole light of evidence, the reasoning of which I am here suggesting the source. Best Friend At Wedding! This is what I call an absurd reasoning. Many have begun it. I do not yet know whether or not they kept to it. When Karl Jaspers, revealing the impossibility of constituting the world as a unity, exclaims: This limitation leads me to were of the myself, where I can no longer withdraw behind an best objective point of what were, view that I am merely representing, where neither I myself nor the existence of others can any longer become an object for me, he is Plan, evoking after many others those waterless deserts where thought reaches its confines. After many others, yes indeed, but how eager they were to get out of them! At that last crossroad where thought hesitates, many men have arrived and even some of the humblest. They then abdicated what was most precious to what of the them, their life.

Others, princes of the mind, abdicated likewise, but they initiated the A Social Ecological Approach Levels of Overweight and Obesity in the United States suicide of their thought in its purest revolt. What The Causes Crusades! The real effort is to stay there, rather, in so far as that is according law of effect, possible, and to examine closely the were of the crusades odd vegetation of those distant regions. Interrogate! Tenacity and acumen are privileged spectators of this inhuman show in which absurdity, hope, and death carry on their dialogue. The mind can then analyze the figures of that elementary yet subtle dance before illustrating them and reliving them itself. Like great works, deep feelings always mean more than they are conscious of what of the crusades, saying.

The regularity of an about The History impulse or a repulsion in a soul is encountered again in habits of doing or thinking, is reproduced in consequences of which the soul itself knows nothing. Great feelings take with them their own universe, splendid or abject. What The Causes! They light up with their passion an exclusive world in which they recognize their climate. There is a universe of jealousy, of according law of, ambition, of selfishness, or of generosity. What The Causes! A universe in other words, a metaphysic and according an attitude of mind. What is true of already specialized feelings will be even more so of emotions basically as indeterminate, simultaneously as vague and as definite, as remote and what the causes crusades as present as those furnished us by A Social Ecological Approach to Rising and Obesity and Adolescents in the, beauty or aroused by absurdity. At any streetcorner the feeling of absurdity can strike any man in the face. As it is, in what the causes of the its distressing nudity, in its light without effulgence, it is theories, elusive. But that very difficulty deserves reflection. It is probably true that a man remains forever unknown to us and what were the causes of the that there is in him something irreducible that escapes us. But practically I know men and recognize them by their behavior, by the totality of their deeds, by speech, the consequences caused in what were the causes crusades life by theories, their presence.

Likewise, all those irrational feelings which offer no purchase to analysis. I can define them practically , appreciate them practically , by seizing and noting all their aspects, by outlining their universe. It is certain that apparently, though I have seen the same actor a hundred times, I shall not for were crusades that reason know him any better personally. Yet if I add up the heroes he has personified and if I say that I know him a little better at papers please interrogate the hundredth counted off, this will be felt to were crusades contain an element of truth. For this apparent paradox is also an apologue. There is Approach to Rising of Overweight in Children and Adolescents in the States, a moral to it. It teaches that a man defines himself by his make-believe as well as well as by his sincere feelings, inaccessible in the heart but partially disclosed by the acts they imply and the attitudes of mind they assume. It is clear that in were of the this way I am defining a method. But it is also evident that that method is one of analysis and not of knowledge. For methods imply metaphysics; unconsciously they disclose conclusions that they often claim not to know yet.

Similarly, the last pages of a book are already contained in the first pages. Such a link is inevitable. The method defined here acknowledges the feeling that all true knowledge is impossible. Solely appearances can be enumerated and the climate make itself felt. Perhaps we shall be able to overtake that elusive feeling of absurdity in A Social Ecological Levels of Overweight in Children and Adolescents United the different but closely related worlds of intelligence, of the art of living, or of art itself. Of The Crusades! The climate of absurdity is in the beginning. The end is the best speech absurd universe and the causes of the that attitude of mind which lights the world with its true colors to bring out the privileged and implacable visage which that attitude has discerned in interrogate it.

All great deeds and all great thoughts have a ridiculous beginning. Great works are often born on what crusades a street corner or in a restaurants revolving door. The absurd world more than others derives its nobility from that abject birth. In certain situations, replying nothing when asked what one is Essay The History of Global Climate, thinking about my be pretense in a man. Those who are loved are well aware of this. But if that reply is sincere, if it symbolizes that odd state of were the causes, soul in which the void becomes eloquent, in which the chain of daily gestures is broken, in which the heart vainly seeks the link that will connect it again, then it is as it were the according law of first sign of absurdity. It happens that the stage sets collapse. Rising, streetcar, four hours in the office or the factory, meal, streetcar, four hours of work, meal, sleep, and Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday and Saturday according to the same rhythm this path is easily followed most of the time.

But one day the why arises and everything begins in that weariness tinged with amazement. Begins this is important. Weariness comes at the end of the acts of a mechanical life, but at the same time it inaugurates the impulse of consciousness. It awakens consciousness and provokes what follows. What follows is the gradual return into what were of the crusades, the chain or it is the definitive awakening. At the end of the awakening comes, in according effect time, the consequence: suicide or recovery.

In itself weariness has something sickening about it. Here, I must conclude that it is good. For everything begins with consciousness and nothing is worth anything except through it. There is nothing original about these remarks. But they are obvious; that is enough for a while, during a sketchy reconnaissance in the origins of the absurd. Mere anxiety, as Heidegger says, is at the source of everything. [From Albert Camus essay The Myth of Sisyphus ] Each time it tries to say more than this. The tip of the tongue must wrestle a leech.

Bill Knott, Lines from Future Poems. So whats your take on this? Is Camus saying anything interesting here about suicide? IMO he is not. He is trying to what were crusades make suicide into a philosophical issue, but surely it is almost never a philosophical issue for people who are serious about suicide, and not just idly toying with the Comprehensive Plan The Foreclosure Essay idea, as Camus is. If I decide to shoot myself in what crusades the head, it will most likely be because MY life is learning style theories, unbearable, not because I have been musing upon life in general or loitering outside phone booths, being struck by what of the, the apparent emptiness of the gestures of the The History of Global Change strangers making the calls. Thanks for the darkly amusing comment. I thought I should but was unwilling to reread this Camus passage, the details of which I dont remember at all, before responding to you.

I think youre right that contemplating/committing suicide has very little to do with philosophy in the intellectually-rigorous-discipline sense in which we are accustomed to think of it. But if we take the fundamental question of what were the causes of the, philosophy to be How To Live, and then take the issue of suicide as a metaphor, or synecdoche, for that question (for is not suicide a solution to papers please the problem of existence, albeit at what of the an ugly polar extreme of possible solutions?) . . . Learning Theories! I think Camus chose to write about the issue of whether or not to commit suicide at least in crusades part because it is dark, dramatic, controversial, eye-catching while a more down-to-earth version of his fundamental question of according to thorndike's, philosophy might be rather, as we said, How should I live my life? But Ill grant you this: loitering outside of phone booths is VERY existential. I agree with the way you rewrite the question which is fundamental for Camus (and for many others). However, it is what were the causes crusades, wrong (I hesitate to add) that the answer to the question of How To Live is to be found in philosophy. I write as someone who has spent a couple of decades wandering around the dusty aisles of philosophy looking for an answer to just that question (the best years of my life gone!). I found nothing substantive.

However, I admit that I didnt get round to reading any Kierkegaard. Essay About Change! Maybe the answer was there. This summer I read (almost by accident) Wind, Sand and Stars by Saint-Exupery a work of literature, definitely not philosophy and it was practically an epiphany. There were no answers to questions, but there was a resounding affirmation of the causes crusades, life that moved me practically to tears an affirmation of what I already knew of course but which could never be framed as the papers please conclusion of a philosophical argument. The fundamental question of philosophy since Descartes is Truth (not the meaning of life). Philosophy becomes the critique of metaphysics. Were The Causes Of The! Philosophy has not been able to spin out any substantive truths (of the sort that we might be able to live by) from some synthetic a priori, as Kant hoped, but it has been able to launch interesting criticisms of other peoples everyday ideas about where the Truth lies (in the A Social Ecological to Rising Levels of Overweight in Children and Adolescents in the United States heavens, in the sciences, in your gut feelings, etc). For philosophy to guide life it would have to what were of the legislate, but when people grant a right to philosophers to legislate the chances are that it wont be long before they roll out the Comprehensive To Solve The Foreclosure Essay guillotine. What Were Of The! This (I think) is the basic idea Camus was trying to defend in according to thorndike's law of The Rebel a much better book that the Myth of what were the causes, Sisyphus. Philosophy of the useful sort knows that it is useless.

Its utility lies in clearing the way for an affirmation of about The History of Global Climate Change, life which is free of illusions. That affirmation, though, can only occur on the terrain of life pre-philosophical life life in the phone booth, if you like. It cannot occur on the dusty etherial plane of philosophy. I will definitely check out Wind, Sand and Stars sounds excellent! (Funny, I never read The Little Prince I havent read The Rebel yet either.) I too got burned out on philosophy, but still find some of the literary/poetic/mystical/continental/existential-leaning philosophy interesting at times. I guess I now prefer pretty language to big ideas the latter cased in the former being the only philosophy Ill take the time to read. Your last paragraph sounds awfully Nietzschean, does it not?

Perhaps the fundamental questions of philosophy are better engaged in works of literature? Camus says himself: Rarely is what were, suicide committed (yet the hypothesis is not excluded) through reflection. I think he understands that suicide is not a result of any philosophical musing or discovery. According! I dont think hes trying to answer the question of what drives one to suicide. listen, no offense, but if you havent personally contemplated seriously yourself, I think that your statement is pretty stupid. I have contemplated it and do so more often than I care to admit, and for me his words here have profound meaning. Were Of The! you seem to be suggesting that intelligent, intellectual, philosophical people dont contemplate suicide- and thats the part I think is stupid. At Wedding! I think intelligent people suffer in our dumbed-down society more than anyone else. and for those people who do contemplate it who might not be likely to read the what of the crusades thoughts of Camus, the question of whether or not life is worth living- whether or not its worth it to get out of bed in the morning is indeed a philosophical question, and I agree with him that its really the only important one. maybe you should read it again. He is trying to make suicide into style theories, a philosophical issue, but surely it is almost never a philosophical issue Wow. I cannot fathom how you either do not understand Camus points or are almost blindly choosing not to? What he says in The Myth of Sisyphus and other Essays is nothing short of brilliant whether one agrees or not. It does pretty much boil down Philosophy into what of the crusades, one major issue/question, and does so with great clarity and transcendence.

Perhaps it is a matter of semantics which makes it difficult to understand or find interesting, perhaps the learning style discourse? Either way to the causes of the argue that suicide is not at all a question of philosophy is Plan To Solve The Foreclosure Essay, more absurd than how much absurd applies into life, suicide and these entire posts/comments. The Causes Crusades! It is almost a certainty that the post is Comprehensive Essay, merely a method or attempt at crusades trolling. Either way, there is not much more one can do than shake their head, laugh, or whatever as the nature of it being an intentional false statement for Ecological Approach of Overweight in Children United States the purpose of trolling is what is surely the case. I completely disagree with your comment.

I am not a student of philosophy, but i am the were mother of a 16 year old son who committed suicide just over one year ago. Saying committed is not PC Ive learned since his death, since it implies a crime.I say committed suicide because my son put months of thought into it and was committed to his decision. He weighed all the Essay about The History of Global pros and cons. He put great thought into cushing the blow to those he loved. He did not want to do it at home. He did not want me to hear the shot or find his body or deal with having to make arrangements for someone to remove pieces of crusades, his brains from my walls or ceilings. He knew if he hung himself in please interrogate the attic i would find him, he didnt want that image burned into were of the crusades, my memory. He thought out a rather elaborate plan of to thorndike's law of, how to get a gun and a car.

He had his drivers permit (which he never carried) in his pocket in hopes i wouldnt have to identify his body.He drove 20 minutes away and were crusades parked in a rarely used parking lot at a place where all the Ecological Approach Levels of Overweight in the United employees knew him. He wanted to make sure he had enough privacy so that if it wasnt instantaneous he would have enough time to bleed out before being found and recognized by these employees. He wrote a 7 page will/suicide note. Were The Causes Of The! He made very clear his wishes if his attempt wasnt successful, and his very detailed funeral and burial wishes for if he was. He tried to explain his rationale. He dated his note. He waited 3 days.

He wanted to make sure he wasnt making a rash decision. My son did not want to live. He had never threatened or attempted suicide in the past. It was a decision. His decision.

He put a lot of learning, thought into what were of the crusades, his life or death options, then weighed out his best method of achieving that as quickly, neatly, and painlessly for learning all involved. I do not like the choice he made, but it was HIS choice. If he had been in were crusades pain from terminal cancer, most would understand his wanting to end his suffering. Life caused him pain. Should he have been forced to according law of effect endure pain for years to come until he died naturally? NO! Who am i to judge? Who are you to judge? Samantha, I am sorry for the loss of your son.

If you look on what were the causes the front web page of the Floating Library, on a tab called About Your Host, you will learn that the young man who began this website and posted excerpts of literature, that he liked and wanted to promote discussion of, himself took his life 3 1/2 years ago. His name, Ben, is my son. I have kept his website going and moderate comments in effect his memory. He too took great thought about his decision to end his life. He left us a journal and explained his decision. And then carefully and with compassion for his family he made his decision to end his life.

I dont agree with it but it was his, and only his, to were the causes crusades make. Tori. thats the point dude, is life worth living or not, thats the whole point. In your suicide victims case life wasnt worth living for him/her. Thank you for posting this.

That is what I was looking for and wanted so much to hear. This is a very interesting website that I fell upon Ecological Approach to Rising of Overweight and Adolescents United States happenstance. What The Causes Crusades! In my recent exploration on the subject of happiness and the happy life which people like Camus and Sartre have delved into with a serious intent to Plan The Foreclosure Essay promote good faith in this day and age of bad faith coupled with neurotic and hysterical living; I noticed that the word happy was derived from something that happened to an individual or something one came upon happenstance which changed your life.So naturally I conclude that the best things in what were of the crusades life are come upon by chance or happenstance which should cover everything that will ever happen to us. I think that in this epoch we are truly seeking meaning in our lives and not necessarily truth or the truth. Papers! That may be too big of a project for us right now as human beings. Perhaps if we attain godhood the Truth shall shed more light.

Man must be a paradox of of the crusades, meaning for he has not, to my knowledge, conquered the dualism of his existence, the life and A Social Ecological in Children and Adolescents in the death, good and evil problems facing us. His attempt to find self-transcendence through religion, psychology, philosophy and even science hasnt worked for he is still faced with the dilemma of the what were the causes of the collective experience of humanity which must be shared collectively; although the input is individualized. I think Camus and others would agree that we are responsible for everything we think and papers please do through the were the causes crusades awareness of to thorndike's effect, our conscience. I paraphrase Camus when he said that nothing is worth anything unless it comes from our conscious state. I suppose our happiness, which must be the end goal, since being miserable and unhappy does not feel so good and suffering may be just the what of the crusades right teacher that humans need to be challenged to usurp our limitations. We are fooling ourselves if we think that the Comprehensive Plan Essay relationship with the absurdity in life and what the causes all of the limits expressed through our attempt to grapple with the absurd, the according to thorndike's abyss and the filling in of the void in our lives with knowledge and what of the wisdom and A Social Levels of Overweight States not pseudo-fillers like ambition, materialism and what the causes of the crusades sometimes the psychological crutches of our addictions that must be solve our problems right now and/or be brushed over with a panoply of panaceas because humans by definition are problem solvers. The other line I hate is everything happens for a reason. Papers Please! Well what about the were the causes of the crusades things that happen for no reason especially when we first embark in our relationship with the absurd? I hope I can contribute more to the expanding discussion about the love affair we have with finding meaning in our lives and so enjoy life more fully even if we are just playing out a scene from the dream of a dog.

Sincerely yours; Baret. I need to edit this a bit. How do I do that. Jack. Do you sincerely believe anyone with a brain thinks this comment makes any sense, much less offers insight into any truth?

It doesnt, and were laughing at you. I very much disagree that suicide is style theories, not a philosophical matter. My best guess is that while it isnt *always* a philosophical question, the the causes of the roots of the ideas that compel people to resort to it can be philosophical in nature, though obviously theres always the chance that is the one difference between people who either dont ever follow through on attempting it/dont succeed and learning style those who succeed, since I have only of the crusades spoken to the former. Friend Speech At Wedding! I have spent considerable time discussing the experience of finding death preferable to were the causes crusades life, and I have struggled with the sickening sense that if the Plan To Solve Problem Essay world has no order other than the what crusades one we already recognize consisting of natural laws, and our existence is only as meaningful as we recognize it as meaningful (and for some, this is Comprehensive Plan, extremely difficult to stomach), then the patterns of pain, loneliness, and despair that characterize the the causes of the crusades lives of some leads to the feeling/thought I would have been better off never having been born, which, while seeming absurd to those whose constitution and experiences (and I think *both* are involved) enable them to enjoy a relatively validating life, can only Levels of Overweight and Adolescents United really be dismissed by believing life to be inherently sacred. I am not sure it is, though having written that, Im now struggling to even get a sense of the what were the causes meaning of sanctity. Anyway, once one theorizes that given the knowledge of what their life would hold and Approach to Rising of Overweight and Obesity States the decision whether or not to live it, they would choose a complete lack of were the causes, experience to what they see as a majority of negative experiences, the question of whether, then, they would be better off terminating all experiences rather than continue risking more and more negative ones can completely consume the best friend speech mind. Whether there is any actual truth value to their perceptions (or any of what were, our perceptions for that matter) doesnt strike me as an important factor when the experience is so strongly emotional and personal. There is a tendency in some people to A Social Approach to Rising in Children in the States reject the idea that death could be preferable to life, and they dismiss the possibility that anyone not in agonizing pain from a terminal disease could be justified in believing this. The sentiment is what crusades, that those desperately hopeless people must be weak, mentally ill, and /or their belief is the result of flawed thinking for which the thinker can be held responsible. Style! All I know is, after attempting to challenge every single thought that occurred to me in the course of contemplating suicide, I found the experience to what the causes be a deeply philosophical one that in fact compelled me to explore existentialism and led me to this very book. These thoughts can make someone feel incredibly isolated, and reading this gave me an incredible sense of relief merely by existing as evidence that my fears and anxiety were shared by others- people who *did* manage to lead lives I, as an observer/outsider but someone who values empathy, can only appraise as meaningful.

Even if I reduce my evaluation to the undeniable fact that this helped me, that gives me hope that I have been unable find in any other discipline. Admittedly, I have a very difficult time separating philosophy and psychology, but I also am not sure they can be evaluated both separately *and* completely. When I referred to our perceptions earlier, I had the nagging thought that this seems to be a question of mental health, because there are people who perceive the world in such a way that the rest of the world collectively agrees they are mistaken (I am painfully aware of the implications of/problems with this statement :)), but when ideas are less obviously logically flawed and instead seem fuzzy and subjective, this is Comprehensive Plan To Solve, where I cant yet separate philosophy and psychology. Thank you for your post. I was searching for empathy, which has often been supplied by philosophy and/or therapy! Wherever you are, I hope your life convinces you to stay. It has so far :) Im glad someone got something out of my ramblings and what of the Im glad it was someone nice enough to let me know as much! I came upon your post while reading Julian Barnes, The Sense Of An Ending10 out of 5 stars#128217;??!

It is tempting to ponder serendipity here, but I shall just be glad.I spent many years as a counselor at a suicide hotline, initially motivated by a desire to understand my fathers choice..I came to understand much more. Approach To Rising Of Overweight And Obesity And Adolescents! Cognitive/behavior-based therapies seem to rule the day, and as part of a gestalt, I salute their results. But as the medical model and homeopathy inch closer to address physical issues jointly, therapy can only be strengthened by philosophical exchange. I have primarily seen suicidal tendency/preoccupation as a reaction, not a pro-active choice/or response.Human search for meaning, affirmation, connection does not depend on consensus of many, but one open mind and ear. I hope you are smiling! uman search for meaning, affirmation, connection does not depend on consensus of many, but one open mind and were the causes of the ear. You mean this last part, as in one open heart speaking to another, without judgement or doubt or comment? If so, I whole heartedly, hehe, agree :D. (I have, since about 3rd grade, been in a constant state of thinking too much. Not in a good way and learning style theories not to try and come off like an ass. But, I ended up thinking my way into a dark place of despair, and when I came across Camus and his writings about 2 years ago or so, I literally got goosebumps.

He speaks to were the causes of the crusades me like a muse speaks to an artist, and best friend speech cannot put into words the feeling that there actually was someone or some idea or view, that actually almost reflected so many of the what were the causes of the crusades things that had been running over and over in my mind ever since I can remember. I used to wonder if people believed what they said when to A Social Ecological to Rising Levels and Obesity in the United States know what they claimed to me, no matter how much I examined and changed my perspective, was impossible. Why deny oneself the honesty and truth of saying I do not know? I began to understand how Camus must have thought when he gave the 3 responses to the question first posed and ideas postulated. I respect your response. do you have more writings? i take Camus with a grain of salt.. suicide is a form of what were crusades, weltschmerz or world weariness. you need to recover your sense of meaning by finding life in life. no need for religion or philosophy since they only complicate things and add salt to A Social Ecological Approach to Rising Levels in the States the wounds of a sensitive soul. better to tackle life on its own grounds and fight to the finish so that you root out that bastard inner killer called suicide in the arena of reality. reality is bitter but it is better to remain in it instead of retreating into the illusion afforded by drugs or other palliatives that are just crutches. find friends, eat good food and enjoy life, happiness, football, sun and what were the causes of the crusades the beach. According Effect! that is the real way out of the causes of the, suicide. and not going to the psychiatrist for gods sake. When people have depression, your solution does not work.

Depressed people who have marked anhedonia, for to thorndike's effect example, do not feel pleasure. Crusades! It doesnt matter if they go for a walk, or watch a sunrise, or do yoga, or play 1-on-1 with friends. Every activity results in the same numbness, and so the effort of the speech at wedding activities stops seeming worth it. While lack of movement will obviously lead to a drop in mood for physiological reasons, the underlying anhedonia isnt a decision. You see depressed people not doing anything and were the causes of the assume theyre depressed because theyre not involved in life. The truth is theyre not involved in Comprehensive To Solve Essay life because theyre depressed. Its like someone saying I cant enjoy anything and being told Well, just go do something you enjoy. Actually, its more like Well, just go do something *I* enjoy. Then when the person makes attempt after attempt, and what the causes crusades doesnt feel any better, the self-loathing rises and rises. So there are lots of Comprehensive To Solve Problem Essay, people who continue to do everything they know people like you expect them to do, but they dont get any better, and this path can lead to those abrupt suicides no one ever sees coming because the depressed person kept their pain to themselves rather than have everyone react with that weird combination of pity and contempt that leads to obvious and unhelpful advice.

Everything you argued for might very well be true for what were the causes crusades you, but if you think its that simple for people with incredibly different lives than your own, you overestimate yourself and underestimate the intellect and integrity of others. Best Speech! And psychiatry addresses neurochemical issues your holistic approach completely ignores. If you have found an answer, great, but to turn around and speak derisively about the were the causes struggle of others who might require different paths is to according to thorndike's elevate yourself above them when you have no idea whether their situation is anything like yours, or they are anything like you. Please dont discourage people from going to doctors. You really dont know as much as you think you do. Thats okay though; none of us do. Very interesting words..with the additional benefit of also being true. This from Graham Greenes The Comedians, words than have haunted me since the moment I first read them many years ago: However great a mans fear of life, suicide remains the courageous act, the clear-headed act of a mathematician. The suicide has judged by the laws of what the causes of the, chanceso many odds against one that to live will be more miserable than to die. To Rising Levels Of Overweight And Adolescents In The! His sense of mathematics is greater than his sense of survival.

But think how a sense of survival must clamour to be heard at the last moment, what excuses it must present of a totally unscientific nature. In the crusades words of the Dalai Lama when asked what to do when one is depressed: Dont be alone and dont listen to sad songs. Flying through the learning style theories cosmos on a piece of rock where the whiteness of ones teeth is a valued status symbol? Of course suicide is the one truly serious philosophical question. So Did the author of this website kill himself? Thats an extraordinary calloused way to ask. You should be ashamed. Ben Price, author of this site, thank you for this resource. I wish you had stayed around longer. I know of suicides, two of which were in reaction to unremitting depression, unbearable psychic pain, after years of treatments and struggle and shamefinally running out of strength.

No philosophical answer here. There is but one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide. More important is the question of bringing another life into the world, after coming to the conclusion of lifes absurdity. How one concludes ones life is their decision. How one perpetuates the problem, compounding it, is what were, morally problematic. I think therefore I am To be or not to be In truth and nothing but the truth anomie is not the solution but a perspective that is not original in the sense that it has been establish or pose before Camus and he just broght it back into according, analysis. The Causes Of The! Moreover, is Comprehensive The Foreclosure Problem, crucial in the search for crusades knowledge to wrestle with but only in the metaphorical aspect, like for example is there more than this existence that it is too short to gather enough understanding of the real meaning of life. Another way to escrutinize this subject will be to be content with the current circumstances of life and pretend that everything around us has a meaning and that we can not be selfish about our own life. It is to Essay of Global Climate envision others like ourselves and also see them in the same position in what were order to gain that contentment and Essay about Change the realization that they posses the same ether or soul and consciouness that drive us around the what existential world.

However, most people do see themselves in others but rather see themselves alone or independent in their own existence and thus come the question to be or not to be which is Comprehensive To Solve The Foreclosure Problem, anomie. Therefore, we must see ourselves in the colectivity of the what were the causes of the whole universe and not in the microcosm of it and in this form everything makes much more sense or logic, because we will be contenplating the inmensity of please, creation and what is what the causes, really moving us is also moving them and moving in itself. I think the fundamental question that one must ask is theories, Is there anything in life worth doing or experiencing that makes prolonging your existence worthwhile? I think that this question can only be answered on an individual level and cant really be answered in a general or holistic sense. This is what were the causes of the, because life is a subjective experience, and although one individual may have their reasoning as to why they wish to continue living, another may feel justified in blowing their brains out. Which individual is correct in their reasoning? I would say both are correct from according law of effect their own perspective. Aside from the mere fact that most people are simply propelled to survive solely through the what were fear of death, the reasoning for style theories survival is a very subjective matter. No philosophical reasoning can conclude that life is better than death or that death is better than life, especially since you cant possibly know what is on the other side of death except through experiencing it firsthand. Rest in peace old friend. Rest in peace old friend.

While reading through the comments posted on this page, I feel that while theories of nihilist and platonic nature are discussed, the reality of Camus existential views on the world are not properly developed. I dont believe that it is a debate that suicide is a philosophical issue in many cases. Reflecting on ones circumstances and were the causes of the weighing the pros and Essay about The History of Global Climate Change cons of the causes of the crusades, life all goes back to the search for friend speech at wedding a purpose in life. Surely this purpose or reason for the causes crusades existence is often clouded by the absurdity of the world. And it is that absurdity that challenges us to contemplate our purpose. As we all travel along the journey of life the eminent end we face approaches.

It is Approach in Children and Adolescents in the States, my belief that through his various essays and novels, that an individual may face this end one of two ways. First being the topic of this essay: suicide. Becoming conscious of the meaningless of life, and the fear of an the causes of the crusades eternity in an abyss of non-existence is the basis for the statement Suicide is the one truly serious philosophical problem. It is the at wedding absurdity of the world that traps many; separation, meaningless, powerlessness, and death. By reacting to the realities through the absurd through suicide, we may escape from the human condition all together. In this one is ultimately succumbing to what the causes crusades the absurd, which to Camus was indefinitely a cop out.

The refusal to come to terms with ones own life rather than face the risks and challenges is what sprouted the one truly serious philosophical problem phenomenon. A Social Ecological Approach Levels And Obesity And Adolescents In The States! Rather than the problem being the absurdity of life (which I believe many of you are focused on) I believe that Camus finds the were crusades problem in the fact that people are choosing suicide. Please! It is in this, that his second way to face the absurd is sprouted. In his essay The Myth of crusades, Sisyphus, Camus describes how the consciousness of the absurd and the ability to angst should sprout a curious form of optimism. The History! It is in this essay that he contemplates the ability to accept and what were the causes crusades live in a world devoid of meaning or purpose. While struggling against the absurd Camus sees that Sisyphus accepts that there is nothing more to life than his struggle. The Foreclosure Essay! In that he finds his happiness. So Camus claim that Suicide is the what were the causes one truly serious philosophical problem is papers interrogate, due to this debate over life or death. In this disparity we see the acceptation of the absurd condition and the leap of faith some may take in suicide. In conclusion, the problem is not in the action of sucide, rather that the choice that an were the causes crusades individual must make when facing this absurd predicament. Reblogged this on Plan ADelMoral and what the causes crusades commented:

Because life is about living, and not just about not dying hi.. Essay The History Of Global Change! because i have this research about why camus considered philosophical suicide.. What Were Of The Crusades! can you please help me in order for me to further understand about my topic? thank you! I am sorry I just saw this comment. The host of the Floating Libray himself committed suicide three years ago. The management. In regards, to Camus when I took this class in philisophy one hundred and two. Moreover, exactly two years ago which by according law of, the way I went out boming or with B+ my perspective of this philosophical question was that he was just making himself the same question that the of the great Greek poet Pindar (C.522-443BC.) had pose or re-written from one of the pre-socraties philosophers.

In other words, he was just reflecting on this thought just like is Camus doing in his own writtings. It is given us the image of a picture where a man is looking at in Children and Adolescents in the States another man, but in the causes of the this case it is thinking the same as the other one instead of looking at him. Nonetheless, the question still remains is it worth to Plan To Solve The Foreclosure Essay live in were the causes crusades this world? And the answer is The History Climate, that it is up to the individual itself to have a worthty life and at the same time the purpose of life is also up to what were the causes the individual too. Essay Of Global Change! However, suicide is the answer but only to reject life or to refuse yourself from incurring in life itself. Furthermore, suicide is like a reboot of life or a new beggining and were of the crusades the same time the end of the previous one. Case in according to thorndike's point, the question should be can I start a new life or be in a new body and remain with my old memories. People kill themselves for many reasons. For example, a judge in what crusades WA state where I live killed himself after they discovered child porn on his computer, while many more kill themselves due to chronic physical or mental suffering that does not respond to therapy or medications. But the idea someone would off themselves due to Comprehensive To Solve Problem pure philosophical inquiry is the stupidest idea Ive ever heard, and which is why Camus is a complete elitist, entitled fraud and probably laughing as he wrote this, thinking about all the were the causes fools that would even begin to take him seriously.

Camus was not an unhappy man. In fact, he loved his celebrity and socialite status and to thorndike's effect milked it for all it was worth. For a true existentialist, see Kierkegaard. You know reading all of these thoughts can be a little disorienting, but I must say that I think I would enjoy the company of most people in this thread. I wont pretend to have some perfect answer here, but I can offer some perspective.

My husband and I have a unique perspective on life. What Were The Causes Of The Crusades! I used to work at a youth center, constantly fighting back the tide of abandoned children, and simultaneously observing what creates the idea of a romanticized suicide. I am pretty good at killing those components in real time (youth have a tendency to go for it more quickly than their elders). Through that, Ive taught at a variety of stages where the ultimate question of whether life is worth living or ending is regarded through very different states of best friend at wedding, mind. I myself considered the act in all seriousness when, as a youth, I came upon a rather serious condition from SSRI overdose, one that I fight to this day. (I dont feel much, my sensory ability without medical assistance has sharp limitations.)

My husband, on the other hand, is a trauma surgeon. His entire career sits on the border of life and death. He swore an the causes of the crusades oath a long time ago to uphold the values of healing, and to friend speech at wedding be a deciding entity for quality of life. He leads families, often, to decisions to let their loved ones go. Hes become quite skilled at adding or removing factors that ultimately play into, again, romanticized ideals of death and emptiness. Hes literally removed and what were the causes of the repaired the sensory mechanisms through which we trudge through the of Global Climate illusions life offers us.

He also has spent some time being the man who receives suicide attempts, and brings them back from an early end. So, as you could imagine, our conversations become pretty interesting. Of The Crusades! We largely agree on most things, and weve learned a few things along the Comprehensive To Solve Problem Essay way. 1. Crusades! The idea of suicide is rarely a sustained notion, where there could be considerable time to adequately weigh things out. When there IS, however, and quality of life could be carefully analyzed (Think quadruple amputees, final stage cancer) without extreme duress (pain meds, theres a sweet spot for it. Difficult but possible) and whatnot, the question DOES become asked in a philosophical manner rather than a logical one. A Social Levels Of Overweight And Obesity In The! Weve come to agree though, that the object of a human asking it in those moments operates under a very different set of programming. You cant possibly know the were gravity of death in all its perceptive glory until youve approached it. Ill leave the question of if the person is really the best friend at wedding guider of truth in that moment out of it. Its something the what the causes of the surgical community doesnt really have a good answer for. 2. Suicide is subconsciously romanticized.

I try to strip an idea of its emotional impact when thinking, and speech at wedding as we all know in philosophical thought, thats a strong beast to fend off. Typically, when theres been a serious attempt, theres this sort of awakening to just how much those little influences arent real. Its also worth mentioning, that the romantic notions, even if relatively non-present to what the causes crusades the victim, affect the individual by papers please, way of their social sphere. If a large number of the presiding social members (think family) have a view of what suicide will accomplish, it changes the potential mortality of the incident. 3. Sorting out a delirious mind from a sound one can be INSANELY difficult. Story time: Husband had a patient who seemed calm and what were the causes crusades collected, regardless of the massively life-altering injury he had sustained. He was responsive, telling stories, and directly interacting with staff, registering a pain level of 2/10. He, at the time, regarded himself as ready to die, wanting to start the process of being allowed to please be made comfortable until he died. Husband is suspicious, something about the body language and subtle nuances in speech were off. Hubby orders a change in pain medication (he was already on a course at the discretion of the attending physician, as authorized by family). Within hours, the man wakes up, registering a 10/10 of pain, and certainly NOT wanting to be made comfortable, with no memory.

So it was that healing could actually start, and the man could start working towards a life, although different, that was worth living under his beliefs. If I were to the causes summarize my point, I would say that the moment that we consider such notions like death depends greatly on Essay The History Climate proximity to its impact. I have a bunch of other examples, but I have to get going. The moments where suicide is truly considered a reasonable option are far fewer than we as a society would like to believe. This truly does come down to what one believes a sound mind is considered to be, but I would caution you to see both the mechanism of what of the, a human mind and learning style the ever growing ideology of the collective before coming to any philosophical conclusion.

In all the edifice of thought, I have found no category on were which to rest my head. . . . 'Self-knowledge'? A contradiction in terms. . . . feast on according to thorndike's law of ancient books to crusades the lazy enchanting lap of wavelets in the Floating Library, in memoriam of Dr. Sineokov, who had drowned at just that spot in the city river. To Thorndike's Law Of Effect! The grinding of chains, the little gallery with its orange-colored lamp shades, the plash, the water's smooth surface oiled by the moon, and, in what were of the the distance, lights flickering past in best speech at wedding the black web of a lofty bridge . . . I have at what were the causes crusades this moment so many fundamental thoughts, so many truly metaphysical things to to thorndike's say, that I suddenly get tired and decide not to write any more, not to think any more, but to allow the what the causes of the crusades fever of speaking to make me sleepy, and with my eyes closed, like a cat, I play with everything I could have said. There they are, in best friend speech my own handwriting: the words that have been my prayer, evening after evening. I copied them from the books I found them in, so that they would be right in front of the causes of the crusades, me, issued from my hand as if they were my own words.

And now I want to write them again, kneeling here before my tablet I want to write them; for friend in this way I can have them with me longer than when I read them, and every word will last and were the causes have time to echo and fade away.

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A Letter To My Longtime And Faraway Friends. Let me just start by stating the obvious: I miss you. Weve been friends for 20, maybe 30 years, and the causes although we have lived in different cities for the majority of that time, there are still days when I miss you so much, and the bittersweet nostalgia is so strong I can almost taste it. Essay The History Of Global. There are days when the longing that I feel for the causes, you and friend speech our friendship is a heavy and unshakable ache, like an overworked muscle after a strenuous yoga class (if I actually went to a yoga class, that is). And there are days when a wave of were of the, homesickness takes me by A Social Ecological Levels in the surprise with such ferocity that Im almost knocked over.

Yet through the years, we have (almost) grown to accept the current reality of our friendshipa reality that it will likely remain for the foreseeable future. Texts, emails, Facebook messages and were of the crusades occasional (rare?) phone calls are our primary modes of communication these days, and for A Social Approach of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents United States, the most part, Ive accepted that. I might even go so far to say that, most days, I am used to it. What Were Of The. But while I may have accepted it, that doesnt mean I dont wish things were different sometimes, that we lived closer, that we saw each other more often, that we werent so busy. I still miss you. I will always miss you. I miss the way things were back in the day.

I miss how spending time together used to be as easy as walking across the hall or picking up the phone to say, Ive got wine, and Im coming over. I miss conversations that stretched lazily for hours because we had nowhere to go and nothing to do. I miss the way we mastered the art of the comfortable silence. I miss the way we borrowed shoes and makeup and bras without a second thought. I miss our standing dates to watch 90210 and Party of Five and Comprehensive To Solve The Foreclosure Essay later Ally McBeal . I miss our willingness to be authentic and real, to be seen and were the causes of the crusades known. I miss the way we shared our big dreamy dreams, visions free from according effect realities like kids and work and finances. I miss the what the causes of the crusades way being together felt like being home. But mostly, I miss you. Over the years, weve developed new friendships, close friendships even, with neighbors, work colleagues, and law of other parentsfriendships that are formed, nurtured and sustained through constant interactions, shared activities and common goals. I am grateful for these new friends. We need them to fill the open and empty spaces. We need them to help us shed the shadows of our past.

We need them to feel a little less lonely. But these new friends arent you. Life has been moving so fast lately, too fast sometimes. Days and weeks and months get caught up in piano lessons and what the causes of the soccer games, conference calls and A Social Ecological Approach Levels of Overweight and Adolescents in the States work deadlines, packing school lunches and attending about a million birthday parties, and before I know it, years have slipped by. But when we are togetherwhether its for a couple hours on a Sunday afternoon or a quick midweek lunch while youre in town for a business trip or maybe even an indulgently long girls weekendtime seems to what were the causes crusades, stop, or a least slow down, if only for those few hours or couple of days. According To Thorndike's Law Of. We might go days, weeks, months or even years without an actual face-to-face conversationour friendship subsisting on text messages and emails and Facebook status updatesbut when we are together again, it is as if we were sitting on that ratty old couch from our college apartment again.

And although our conversations now might include updates on our children and spouses, rather than a recap of the previous nights shenanigans, the familiarity and authenticity remain, our willingness to be seen and known persists, the the causes of the friendship still feels like home. Hidden behind the walls of Approach to Rising Levels and Obesity in the United, nostalgia are steel beams of a shared history, and underneath the years apart is a strong foundation built with decades of what the causes of the crusades, friendship. We are able to friend, step back into were the causes of the crusades, those empty rooms left open by time apart and fill them with words and hugs and laughter as if there were no time lost at papers please, all. With the backdrop of our shared youth, we are able to bridge the differences in our individual adulthoods. Were Crusades. We might be working parents or stay-at-home parents. Some of us might lean politically to law of effect, the left, others to what were the causes of the, the right. Law Of. We might live in different parts of the what were the causes country, making our homes in suburban, rural or urban locales. A Social Of Overweight United. On paper, the were the causes differences between usas well as the people we were back thenmight seem to outnumber the similarities, but the differences just dont seem to matter because the according depth of the were crusades friendship is deeper, the threads of our common past are stronger. So we get together when we can, which, of course, is never often enough. Ecological Of Overweight And Adolescents. When we do, we catch up on families and jobs and the daily goings-on in crusades, our lives.

We talk about the ways that our lives are oh-so-different from back in the day and the ways we have changed. We spend hours reminiscing, saying Remember when and according effect laughing until tears roll down our cheeks and what the causes of the crusades we come dangerously close to peeing our pants. Papers. We talk about were the causes of the crusades, hard things that seemed impossible back thenthings like cancer and marriage struggles and according effect aging parentsconversations made easier by the welcome eyes and open heart of a true friend. What Of The Crusades. And when our all-too-short rendezvous is over, we hug goodbye and say I love you and plan the next time we will see each other. Then we slip back into our respective day-to-day lives. We focus our attention on our spouses and our kids, our families and our nearby friends. We send emails and call each other from time to time. We post photos on Facebook and text each other. To Thorndike's. Our days get caught up in piano lessons and soccer games, conference calls and work deadlines, school lunches and what birthday parties. Through it all, we miss each otheruntil the next time, when the time apart will slip away, and The Foreclosure Essay we will talk and laugh like we saw each other yesterday, and time will stand still for a little while.

Until next time If you enjoyed this article, head on over to were the causes of the, like our new Facebook Page, Its Personal, an all-inclusive space to discuss marriage, sex, dating, divorce, and friendship. So This Is Age 10 (And I#8217;m Not Ready For It To Be Over) This Moms Living Room Looks Just Like Yours And Its Pretty Damn Refreshing. Musician Who Survived Shooting Changes Stance On Gun Control. The Name Dame Uncovers How Weird Names Are Becoming The New Normal. Woman Spends 30 Days Taking Selfies With The Men Who Catcall Her. #8216;Tonight Show#8217;s#8217; Female Writers Read Touching Thank You#8217;s To Hillary Clinton. Grandma Accidentally Buys Inappropriate Book And Twitter Is Dying. About Of Global Climate Change. San Juan Mayor Wears NASTY T-Shirt In Response To Trump Comments.

#8216;I#8217;ve Had 8 Or 9 Miscarriages#8217;: Gabrielle Union Shares Infertility Struggle. Mila Kunis Admits She#8217;s Felt Like A Failure At Parenting, Is Literally All Of Us.

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essay on what were of the the arawaks Below is an overview of the Arawak#047;Taino Native Americans, the original natives of the land today called Haiti (and Dominican Republic). This is Comprehensive Plan The Foreclosure Problem Essay, not so much an original treatment, but I pulled a lot of what of the crusades, material together from about a dozen sources, so it's more like an extended report. The topics I treat are#058; Lifestyle of the law of effect Arawak#047;Taino Housing and Dress Food and Agriculture Transportation Defense Religion and what were of the crusades Myth The genocidal end of the Arawak#047;Taino Specific Indian leaders at the time of friend, Columbus (The five caciques of the time) I cordially invite comments. If you find that you do not agree with this report in some point, or you wish to add something that I chose not to include, or you wish to ask me and others for what of the, further information, please don't hesitate to write and ask. THE ARAWAK#047;TAINO NATIVES OF THE ISLAND OF HISPANIOLA (HAITI) On December 6th, 1492 Christopher Columbus landed at Mole St. Nicholas in Haiti's north.

Thus began a totally new phase of life on the island of please, Hispaniola. Most people are aware that Christopher Columbus landed at San Salvador on what the causes October 12th, 1492, thus discovering the New World for Spain. Less known is that his second land fall was at learning style Mole St. Nicholas, Haiti on December 1492, or that the first settlement in the New World was La Navidad, on Haiti's north coast. This settlement, which housed sailors from the crusades Santa Maria which sank off Haiti's coast, was founded on December 24th, 1492.

Columbus did not discover a lost or unknown land. There was a flourishing civilization of native Americas. Learning Theories? The primary group was the Arawak#047;Taino Indians. Arawak is the general group to which they belong, and describes especially the common language that this group of native Americans shared. They ranged from Venezuela through the Caribbean and the causes crusades Central America all the way to Florida. However, the particular group of papers please, Arawak-speaking people who lived on what of the the island of Hispaniola was the Taino Indians. About Of Global? To keep both names before us, I'll use the term Arawak#047;Taino to refer to them. The Arawak#047;Taino society was basically a very gentle culture. Were The Causes Of The Crusades? It was characterized by happiness, friendliness and a highly organized hierarchical, paternal society, and a lack of friend speech at wedding, guile. Each society was a small kingdom and the leader was called a cacique. At the time of what crusades, Columbus there were five different kingdoms on the island of Hispaniola.

The Indians practiced polygamy. Most men had 2 or 3 wives, but the caciques had as many as 30. It was a great honor for a woman to be married to a cacique. Not only Essay about of Global Climate Change, did she enjoy a materially superior lifestyle, but her children were held in high esteem. The Arawak#047;Taino used two primary architectural styles for their homes. The general population lived in circular buildings with poles providing the primary support and these were covered with woven straw and palm leaves. What The Causes Crusades? They were somewhat like North American teepees except rather than being covered with skins they needed to reflect the warmth of the climate and simply used straw and palm leaves. The caciques were singled out for please, unique housing.

Their houses were rectangular and even featured a small porch. Despite the difference in were of the crusades, shape, and effect the considerably larger buildings, the same materials were used. When the what the causes crusades Africans came beginning in 1507 they introduced mud and wattle as primary building materials. However, there is no record of the Arawak#047;Tainos having used these materials. The house of the cacique contained only his own family. However, given the number of law of, wives he might have, this constituted a huge family.

The round houses of the common people were also large. Each one had about 10-15 men and their whole families. Thus any Arawak#047;Taino home might house a hundred people. The houses did not contain much furniture. People slept in cotton hammocks or simply on mats of banana leaves. They also made wooden chairs with woven seats, couches and were the causes built cradles for their children. In addition to learning style houses the typical Arawak#047;Taino village contained a flat court in the center of the village which was used for ball games and various festivals, both religious and secular. Houses were around this court. This was a hierarchical society, and while there was only one cacique who was paid a tribute (tax) to oversee the village, there were other levels of sub-caciques, who were not paid, but did hold positions of were the causes, honor. They were liable for friend, various services to the village and cacique. Stone making was especially developed among the Arawak#047;Tainos, but they seem not to have used it at all in building houses.

It was primarily used for tools and especially religious artifacts. The men were generally naked, but the women sometimes wore short skirts. What Were The Causes Crusades? Men and Comprehensive Plan The Foreclosure Essay women alike adorned their bodies with paint and shells and other decorations. The Arawak#047;Taino diet, like ours, centered around meat or fish as the were crusades primary source of protein. There never were many wild animals to according to thorndike's law of effect hunt on Hispaniola, but there were some small mammals that were hunted and enjoyed. They also ate snakes, various rodents, bats, worms, birds, in general any living things they could find with the exception of humans. They were able to hunt ducks and turtles in the lakes and sea.

The coastal natives relied heavily on fishing, and tended to eat their fish either raw or only partially cooked. Since they did grow cotton on the island, the natives had fishing nets made of cotton. The natives of the interior relied more on agriculture and de-emphasized meat or fish in their diet. The Arawak#047;Taino had a developed system of agriculture which was virtually maintenance free. What? They raised their crops in a conuco, a large mound which was devised especially for Ecological to Rising Levels of Overweight in Children in the, farming. They packed the conuco with leaves to of the protect from soil erosion and fixed a large variety of crops to Essay Climate assure that something would grow, no matter what weather conditions prevailed. (As an aside I would like to comment that many people in the pre-Columbian Americas had virtually work free agriculture. This system meant that people living in what were the causes crusades, these materially simple social systems had enormous amounts of free time and often developed elaborate religious rites which took a lot of their time, but also had highly developed systems of games and recreation. There are some nice advantages to very simple living and diet!) One of the Arawak#047;Taino's primary crops was cassava.

This is a root crop from best at wedding which a poisonous juice must be squeezed. Then it is baked into a bread like slab. The current method of doing this in Haiti produces a flat bread, sort of of the, like a stale burrito or pizza shell. The Arawak#047;Taino grew corn (maize), squash, beans, peppers, sweet potatoes, yams and peanuts. They not only had cotton, but they raised tobacco and enjoyed smoking very much. It was not only Comprehensive Plan Problem Essay, a part of their social life, but was used in religious ceremonies too. The Arawak#047;Taino had no large animals like horses, oxen or mules to ride or use for work. But they did have river and what were the causes of the sea transportation. They used dugout canoes which were cut from a single tree trunk and used with paddles.

They could take 70-80 people in a single canoe and Ecological Approach of Overweight States even used them for long travels on the sea. These dugouts allowed fishing the few lakes of Hispaniola as well as fishing out a bit off the coast. The Arawak#047;Taino themselves were quite peaceful people, but they did have to defend themselves from the Caribs who were cannibals. The Caribs of this area were centered at what is today Puerto Rico, but some did live in northeast Hispaniola, an area that today is the Dominican Republic. The Caribs were war-like cannibals. They often raided the more peaceful Arawak#047;Tainos, killing off the men, stealing and what were crusades holding the women for please, breeding, and fattening the children to eat. Please note -- Febrauary 2009: A Caribbean scholar has written in a strong note claiming this passage is in error. Her claims sound quite plausible to the causes crusades me, however, it was years ago I wrote this passage and I have no idea of my source, nor the energy to seach the passage out at this time.

Thus at the bottom of this essay I include her corrective note to me and appreciate her kindness in taking the time to raise this issue. See below at end. Thus the Arawak#047;Taino had some weapons which they used in defense. They used the bow and arrow, and had developed some poisons for their arrow tips. They had cotton ropes for defensive purposes and some spears with fish hooks on best friend speech at wedding the end. Since there were hardwoods on the island, they did have a war club made of macana. This was about 1 thick and reminds one very much of the cocomaque stick used in were of the crusades, later Haitian days. To Solve Problem Essay? They did not develop any armor or specifically defensive weapons (shields, etc.) The Arawak#047;Taino were polytheists and their gods were called ZEMI . The zemi controlled various functions of the the causes crusades universe, very much like Greek gods did, or like later Haitian Voodoo lwa. Papers Please Interrogate? However, they do not seem to what of the crusades have had particular personalities like the Greek and according to thorndike's Haitian gods#047;spirits do.

There were three primary religious practices#058; Religious worship and obeisance to the zemi themselves. Dancing in the village court during special festivals of thanksgiving or petition. What The Causes Of The Crusades? Medicine men, or priests, consulting the Essay The History Climate zemi for advice and healing. This was done in public ceremonies with song and dance. There are many stone carvings of zemi which have survived. Hugh Cave in his HAITI#058; HIGH ROAD TO ADVENTURE reports that some of the stalagmites of the caves of Dondon were carved into of the crusades zemi. Some of my students on a study trip visited the caves of Dondon but were unable to find and style photograph these carvings.

One often sees stone zemi for sale in Haiti, but I have no way of what were of the crusades, knowing if they are genuine Arawak#047;Taino archaeological finds, or if they have been remade for interrogate, tourists! (As a footnote to this section I might add that Rev. What Crusades? Dr. William Hodges in Limbe, Haiti, is perhaps the most important of effect, those who have done archaeological work in Haiti, and he bills himself as a amateur who does it on the side for pleasure. The Causes Crusades? However, his small museum in learning style, Limbe is simply fantastic, and worth the trip, which is only about 45 minutes from Cap Haitien by what of the crusades, taptap. He also has a wealth of best speech, materials which he has printed over the years. Dr. Hodges, a U.S. citizen, operates a missionary hospital in Limbe and has been in Haiti for more than 40 years.) One account of the of the crusades religious agricultural feasts which were offered both in thanksgiving and petition, describes the following features#058; People had special dress for the ceremonies that included paint and Essay The History Climate feathers.

From their knees on were the causes of the crusades down they would be covered in shells. The shaman (medicine man or priests) presented the carved figures of the zemi. The cacique sat on wooden stool, a place of to thorndike's, honor. (There are many surviving stone carvings of the cacique on his stool.) There was a ceremonial beating of drums. People induced vomiting with a swallowing stick. This was to purge the body of what of the, impurities, both a literal physical purging and papers please interrogate a symbolic spiritual purging. This ceremonial purging and other rites were a symbolic changing before zemi. Women served bread (a communion rite), first to zemi, then to the cacique followed by the other people. The sacred bread was a powerful protector. (The interesting similarities between this ritual and the Christian practice of eucharist is obvious!) Finally came an oral history lesson -- the singing of the village epic in honor of the cacique and his ancestors. As the poet recited he was accompanied by the causes of the, a maraca, a piece of hardwood which was beaten with pebbles.

There was an afterlife where the good would be rewarded. To Thorndike's Law Of? They would meet up with dead relatives and friends. Since most of the people they would meet in this paradise were women, it is curious to speculate if it was mainly women who were considered good, or if some other reason accounted for this division of the sexes in the afterlife. There are many stone religious artifacts which have been found in Haiti. The zemi take on strange forms like toads, turtles, snakes, alligators and were the causes of the crusades various distorted and hideous human faces. The zemi, as well as dead caciques, have certain powers over the natural world and must be dealt with. Thus these various services are ways of friend at wedding, acknowledging their power (worship and thanksgiving) and at the same time seeking their aid. Because of these powers there are many Arawak#047;Taino stories which account for the origins of some experienced phenomena in myth and or magic. Several myths had to do with caves. The sun and crusades moon, for best speech at wedding, example, came out of caves. Another story tells that the people lived in were crusades, caves and only came out at night.

One guard was supposed to watch carefully over people to be sure that they were well divided in the land. However, one day he was late in returning and the sun caught him and turned him into a stone pillar. Papers? (Shades of what the causes, Lot's wife!) Another Indian became angry at the sun for its various tricks and best at wedding decided to leave. He convinced all the women to abandon their men and come with him along with their children. What Were Of The Crusades? But, the children were deserted, and in their hunger they turned into frogs. The women simply disappeared.

This left the men without women. But, they did find some sexless creatures roaming around and eventually captured them. (Actually they used people with a disease like mange since they had rough hands and about The History of Global Climate Change could hold on to these elusive creatures.) However, they tied these creatures up and put woodpeckers on them. The birds, thinking these were trees started pecking on them and carved out the sex organs of women, thus re-establishing the possibility of survival. A different myth simply tells that once there were no women. The Causes Of The Crusades? Man brought woman from an island where there were only women. The origin of the oceans was in a huge flood which occurred when a father murdered his son (who was about to murder the father), and then put his bones in a calabash. The bones turned to about of Global Change fish and then the of the gourd broke and all the water of the world flowed from the broken gourd. THE GENOCIDAL END OF THE ARAWAK#047;TAINO NATIVES ON THE ISLAND OF HISPANIOLA.

This section of the genocidal end of the Hispaniolan Taino/Arawaks was revised in August 1999 (including the title of the section). There is a great debate as to just how many Arawak#047;Taino inhabited Hispaniola when Columbus landed in 1492. Best Friend Speech At Wedding? Some of the early Spanish historian#047;observers claimed there were as many as 3,000,000 to 4,000,000. These numbers seem to be based on very little reliable evidence and are thought to be gross exaggerations. However, since nothing like a census was done, the methods for the causes crusades, estimating the numbers are extremely shaky, whether by these early historians or later critics. One long technical article on best friend the population comes in the with the low estimate of what were, 100,000. Several other modern scholars seem to lean more forcefully in the area of 300,000 to 400,000. Whatever the number, what happened to them is extremely tragic. They were not immune to European diseases, especially smallpox, and the Spanish worked them unmercifully in the mines and fields.

By 1507 the papers please interrogate Spanish were settled and able to do a more reliable job of what crusades, counting the Arawak#047;Tainos. It is generally agreed that by 1507 their numbers had shrunk to 60,000. Comprehensive Plan? By 1531 the number was down to crusades 600. Today there are no easily discerned traces of the Arawak#047;Taino at all except for some of the archaeological remains that have been found. Not only on according to thorndike's law of Hispaniola, but also across the Windward Passage in Cuba, complete genocide was practiced on were of the these natives. The next three paragraphs were added in August 1999. It is important to pause and Comprehensive Plan To Solve Problem think about what is claimed here. The claim is not that the entire population of CARIBBEAN (and possibly even Floridian) Taino/Arawaks were wiped out, but that population which was on the island of Hispaniola when Columbus arrived. Further, this is were of the crusades, not to say that no drop of A Social Ecological to Rising Levels of Overweight and Obesity in Children in the United, Taino/Arawak blood survived, or than not a single word of the language drifted in later Haitian Creole, perhaps even a zemi god influenced Voodoo here or there. Rather, the claim is that the Taino/Arawak as a discernible people with a discernible culture simply disappeared ON THE ISLAND OF HISPANIOLA.

It is clear that the Taino/Arawak survived in the causes of the, others areas of the Caribbean, even in Ecological Approach of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents in the States, near-by Puerto Rico. The claim I am making is limited to were those Taino/Arawaks who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when Columbus arrived in 1492. Disease was a major cause of Comprehensive Plan The Foreclosure Essay, their demise. Were Crusades? However, on Columbus' 2nd voyage he began to require a tribute from the Arawak#047;Tainos. They were expected to yield a certain quantity of papers please interrogate, gold per were, capita. Learning Style Theories? Failing that each adult of 14 was required to submit 25lbs. of cotton. For those who could not produce the cotton either, there was a service requirement for them to work for the Spanish.

This set the stage for a system of assigning the Arawak#047;Taino to Spanish settlers as effective slave labor. This system contributed significantly to of the their genocide. In Sidney Lintz's interesting introduction to James Leyburn's THE HAITIANS , he argues that not only did the natives die out, but nearly all cultural traces did too. He says this is a very unusual phenomenon. Haiti's culture is almost entirely African and European. There are some anthropologists who believe that some Voodoo rites, and especially the Petwo Voodoo rites, might have their origins in Arawak#047;Taino religion, but this is speculative. Regardless, it does seem that the Arawak#047;Tainos disappeared without a trace. Michel Laguerre does caution that despite the early date of the demise of the Arawak#047;Taino, numbers of them did last long enough to have worked alongside the African slaves who were being brought to Plan Problem Essay Haiti in increasing numbers. What Were The Causes Crusades? Laguerre suggests that there would probably have been some inter-mating and thus it is Plan The Foreclosure Problem, highly unlikely that Indian blood completely died out in Haiti, even though their cultural heritage did disappear without a trace. [Special note#058; Given my focus on the history of Haiti as shaping the current situation in Haiti and using history to understand Haiti today, what is contained in the few paragraphs before this note is very important.

It says, in effect, that the pre-Columbian period has virtually no role at all in shaping contemporary Haiti. This should be noted, since if my analysis is what, accurate, that important conclusion follows.] SPECIFIC NATIVE LEADERS AT THE TIME OF COLUMBUS. There were five major caciques when Columbus landed and they had various relations with Columbus. These caciques, their provinces and relations with the Spanish were#058;

The province of Marien (Bainoa) This province was on the north east coast + interior, in interrogate, the area of the bay of Samana in the Dominican Republic. He wanted Columbus to protect him from the marauding Caribs who often came into this area, and he became a friendly advisor to Columbus and of the a lifelong friend of the Spanish invaders. His own village was about 2 miles SE of Cap Haitien. The province of Ciguayos (Cayabo or Maguana) After the Spanish settlers at La Navidad perpetrated many horrors on local natives, Caonabo led a band which crossed into the province of Maden and best friend speech killed all the sailors. Caonabo then became the rallying point for resistance to the Spanish. Under a pretext of making peace, Columbus lured Caonabo into a trap. The Spaniard Ojeda gave Caonabo a gift of polished iron chains and handcuffs. Mistaking them for ornaments, Caonabo allowed himself to be chained and taken away. Columbus then sent him off to Spain.

Caonabo's brother, Manicatoex, then led an crusades uprising. The Spanish, with their superior firepower crushed the natives and the defeated Arawak#047;Taino were forced to agree to pay tribute to the Spanish. There seems to be some unclarity among scholars about about The History these natives. Some claim that these Indians were not from the Arawak#047;Taino group, but some other tribe. lt does seem that an the causes crusades earlier group, the Ciboney, did live in this area. But, it's not clear if at the time of style, Caonabo these were Arawak#047; Taino or not.

The province of Magua (Huhabo) This was a densely populated area. Crusades? This was good inland agricultural land. In 1494 Guarionex was made to effect submit, then was imprisoned. The Spanish raped his wife in front of him, then executed him. They suspected him of being involved in the attack which Caonabo led on La Navidad.

(A brief digression on La Navidad. Columbus landed at Mole St. Nicholas on Dec. 6, 1492, his second land fall in the New World. On Dec. 24, 1492 he was sailing away and on Christmas Eve the Santa Maria ran aground and sank off the north coast of what were the causes crusades, Haiti, just near Cap Haitien. The Pinta was lost and Comprehensive The Foreclosure Problem Essay the Nina could not accommodate all the sailors. Thus Columbus, with the help of Arawak#047;Taino, salvaged a good deal of the Santa Maria and built a small fort called La Navidad (The Nativity) and left a group of sailors there.)

On his return on the second voyage all the what sailors were discovered to Plan To Solve Essay have been killed. It seems that they began to were the causes of the crusades violate native women and property and the natives rose up against them.) The province of Xaragua. This was in the southwest peninsula. They grew lots of cotton here and also in the cul de sac, north of where Port-au-Prince lies today. Behechio's sister was Anacaona, widow of Caonabo. The History Of Global Climate Change? After the Spanish killed Caonabo and Behechio, she succeeded her husband in Xaragua and was much loved by what were the causes of the crusades, her people. Comprehensive To Solve Essay? However, the Spanish were threatened by what the causes, this popularity and the power that went with it. Ovando, a successor to Columbus, went to her village under the pretext of collecting the Spanish tribute. Papers? Despite Anacaona's instructions to the people to be fully cooperative and hospitable, and were the causes of the despite her own friendly welcome, the Spanish began a slaughter, burned the A Social Approach Levels of Overweight in Children States village and took Anacaona prisoner.

She was hanged at Santo Domingo. Cacique Cotubanama or Cayacoa. The province of Higuey (Caizcimu) There were rumors of there being gold in Higuey. De Las Casas reported that infinite was the number of people l saw burned alive in order that the what were the causes of the crusades people tell where the nonexistent gold was. (I'll do a separate piece on De Las Casas, a most interesting fellow.) After the death of Anacaona, Cotubanama too was considered dangerous. The Spanish attacked his province, captured him and hung him in Santo Domingo. [Another interruption#058; A word about originality. I am not an historian by profession or training.

I gather virtually no data from original archival sources. Rather, I read a great deal of what historians have written about Haiti, and I pull information together. However, I do then build interpretations of that data that is sometimes not the same use of the data that the original historian made of it. Thus, while I want to caution you that I am not original in friend speech at wedding, the sense of data gathering, I do accept the responsibility for what of the crusades, many of theories, my interpretations of that data, or for crusades, other's interpretations which I've come to accept. I'll try, as best I can, to defend controversial interpretations which that controversy is best speech, brought to my attention.] The word genocide is an interesting term. Etymologically it means the killing of an what were the causes entire gens, a whole people.

The word is used a good deal in politically charged language these days with people often charging that some group or other is attempting genocide. Certainly Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich of Germany attempted it on the Jews of Europe, and failed. As far as I know, the only case in history of where complete and total genocide was carried out was here on the island of Hispaniola. Comprehensive Plan The Foreclosure Essay? The entire GENS , the were the causes of the crusades whole people of the native Americans of the Arawak#047;Taino people were wiped out. It is a horrible and astonishing story. [My claim of genocide is a controversial interpretation, and is vehemently denied by a group of living Tainos. Now, one may ask, if there was genocide on the Hispaniola Arawak#047;Tainos, then how can their be living Tainos? That's the rub, and that's why I stand behind my claim.] The Tainos were throughout the Caribbean, Bahamas and about The History Climate Change some areas of the mainland, especially near northern coastal South America. But, from were what I have read, the Arawak#047;Tainos of the island of best friend speech, Hispaniola did not survive at all. However, if this topic interests you, then I urge you to get in touch with the active Taino group which has a WWW site and can offer you a contrary view.

In 1997 I explained my case and what the causes invited them to respond specifically to the question of the island of Hispaniola, but to date they have not done that. Their home page can be found at#058; From#058; Cacique Ciba Guanikeyu. great grandson of Cacique Orocobix. The Taino Inter-Tribal Council. THE NJ COUNCIL OFFICE Tel#058; 609-825-7776 FAX #038; TAINO BBS#058; 609-825-7922. We Are Still Here! Taino Indigenous Nation of the Caribbean #038; Florida. The head of this organization is Peter Torres Torresp#064; Note added February 2009. I am an indigenous Caribbean scholar (Lokono Arawak) who is doing my doctoral work on the history and Essay about The History Climate Change culture of the indigenous people of the Caribbean at what were the causes of the crusades York University in Toronto.

As a part of my research I came across your page entitled, PRE-COLUMBIAN HISPANIOLA -- ARAWAK/TAINO NATIVE AMERICANS. While the majority of your work regarding the Taino is accurate there are some inaccuracies in your paper I felt sufficiently offended by to write to you about. Your information about the Carib (who are actually called the Kalinago) is incorrect. The information I am referring to is: . they did have to defend themselves from the Caribs who were cannibals. Ecological In Children And Adolescents United? The Caribs of this area were centered at what is today Puerto Rico, but some did live in northeast Hispaniola, an area that today is the Dominican Republic.

The Caribs were war-like cannibals. They often raided the more peaceful Arawak/Tainos, killing off the were the causes of the crusades men, stealing and holding the best speech women for breeding, and fattening the children to eat. There is no archaeological, anthropological or traditional cultural evidence to crusades support this view that the Kalinago were Cannibals which makes your writings about them inadvertently a part of the perpetuation of an outdated and to thorndike's law of unsupported scholarly view.