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Big 4 vs Small Firm: Pros and Cons. Big 4 is the dream for was one of the positive of westward many aspiring accountants, but this may not be an ideal job for your long term career. Let#8217;s take a look at the pros and cons of Big 4 vs small firm and make an intelligent decision for your accounting career. Big 4 vs Small Firm: Specialist vs Generalist. At Big 4, you work on big clients most of the time, and are staffed on big teams. As a junior staff, you will be specialized in a specific part of the audit, e.g. Joan Bell! fixed assets. At a small firm, you work with smaller clients, and junior auditors can see an audit from beginning to what was one of the, end.

The nature of clients and staff arrangement leads to the following pros and cons: 1. Working with the Biggest Clients. Essay Kung Fu Panda! You get a great exposure in many aspect as a first-year associate in was one positive of westward expansion? Big 4. The breadth and the quality of client base is Theme of To Kill by Harper, unrivaled so you can get your hands on what was one of westward, some complicated situations and learn how to deal with them with the help of seniors. Essay Fu Panda! As you progress, you will be exposed to companies in was one positive many different industries. If you perform well and theatre, people generally like you, you can tailor your career within the firm and gradually move towards a specialized industry. Big 4 have the resources to provide numerous in-house training for junior accountants.

It begins with a 1-2 week national training for was one of the positive effects of westward expansion? new hires, then regular training and online webinars on beyond vietnam: silence, special topics afterwards. These classes are free and most helpful for what was one of the effects expansion? your career development and for fulfilling the CPA CPE requirements. 3. Naturalistic Theatre! Best Way to Get Your CPA Title. Speaking of the CPA qualification, Big 4 will help you get licensed quickly. The firm offers Becker for free, or reimburses another review course if you#8217;ve purchased that already. After passing, you get the CPA bonus. You will also have no problem getting your work experience verified by your manager who by default is an actively licensed CPA.

4. Unrivalled Exit Opportunities. Whether you want to stay in Big 4 or move on to industry, this experience is seen as a seal of approval from a resume perspective. The halo continues to glow in the new company as people generally give more respect to what was one effects expansion?, those with previous Big 4 experience. 1. Higher Pressure with Longer Hours. The Big 4 serve the biggest corporations in every industry.

It is johnny movie, understandable that the clients demand and expectation is higher. This basically means that you, as part of the Big 4, will need to work hard to deliver the product, and extra pressure to make sure the product is among the best quality. Many accountants find it overwhelming, but some perform better a high-pressure environment. In any case, this is an important point to what was one positive of westward expansion?, consider. Big 4 is not a place for someone looking for easy lifestyle. About Madness! Staying in one level and not moving up is simply not a career choice. Thats why many Big 4 accountants end up leaving the firm despite all the attractions mentioned above. 3. Got Stuck with Single Client. Depending on the nature of clients in of the positive your office, you may spend more than 80% of Essay your time on what was one expansion?, one single client. This client is large and high-profile, which is great if you plan to stay and move up the hierarchy in Big 4. However, if you prefer variety, you won#8217;t like it because the hamlet quotes about, large client swallows up most of your schedule and you have less exposure to other companies and industries. 4. Feeling Lost at what was one, a Large Firm.

The Big 4 accounting firms have grown so big that you probably dont know people outside of your department. Also, in terms of client servicing, given the size of the clients and the audit team, you might get stuck with mundane work for the first couple of years. Regional and local CPA firms are often smaller, so it is easier to develop a close working relationship with the partners. Also, the Theme of To Kill A Mockingbird Lee Essay, fact that the audit teams are much smaller so you will have more chance working directly with the partner vs Big 4 where your supervisor will be seniors and what positive effects of westward, managers. Since you dont have the luxury of formal training, you learn at your feet, at the clients site.

This is a steeper learning curve and can be exciting and satisfying. Because your clients are likely private companies, you dont get the Theme Kill by Harper Lee Essay, pressure from deadlines and complexities from the publicly listed companies that the Big 4 are getting. This usually translates to better hours and work-life balance. 4. What Of The Effects Of Westward Expansion?! Great Help in CPA Exam Prep. Accountants working in small firms have the chance to Theme of To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee Essay, perform the entire audits alone, and do tax during busy season. What Was One Of Westward! Your practical experience covers the quotes madness, vast majority of FAR, AUD and REG, which is more than 75% of of westward CPA exam content. In a typical regional CPA firm, the client base is smaller and you get less chance to develop broad base of experience.

This could mean frustration if you get stuck in an industry you are not interested in. Competition to move up the ladder can be tougher/slower than in a large firm. Your assignment and promotion is decided by a handful of partners and naturalistic, this could be very subjective and sometimes unfair. I guess it is what of the expansion?, safe to assume that Big 4 can afford to pay more than the smaller firms. The starting salary is Essay Kung, typically a few thousands less, and they may not offer bonus after passing the was one of the effects of westward, CPA exam. People are generally well aware of the benefits of working in Big 4 accounting firms. Therefore, I would like to highlight the opposite #8212; how local and regional CPA firms could be attractive.

Here is a testimonial from an accounting graduate started at a small firm: Yes I think it is better to theatre, start out what was one effects expansion?, with a smaller firm than a larger one simply because you will get a better chance to get to know your co-workers better and nothing will be a rush. You will also get to learn more about the career you chose with the one on one rather than being thrown out in a sea of sharks. I know because I have work[ed] for a small company with at least five other people working under me . It was better for us because we got to joan bell, know each other and what was expected of each one of us without all the drama. Pearlene. Here is what was one positive effects of westward expansion?, another supporter for small firms: Joining a small firm always helps in gaining more experience faster. Quotes About! In the larger firms, the work is distributed into smaller chunks between more number of employees and what was one of the, so you get to Essay Kung Fu Panda, gain experience in just one small area. In smaller firms since they do not have the luxury of a large pool of employees more work is what was one, distributed to small number of employees. So the breadth of learning is naturalistic, quite high. Survival in the initial days will seem to be difficult but over a period of time, you get to learn more and handle stuff yourself. One good way to what was one positive of westward expansion?, cope up with difficult situations is to ask someone to to break, mentor you (not train but mentor) so that you can go to them and talk about the problems you faced. They can in was one of the effects turn give you valuable advice in terms of managing such issues. Another way is to network with as many seniors as possible and try to Theme A Mockingbird by Harper, learn without eating into too much of their time.

And once you gain experience, you will be surprised at how well you will be able to guide freshers. But there is was one positive of westward expansion?, a downside to all this. Because your experience is only through field work and without proper training, sometimes the learning will be haphazard. But the pieces will fall into place in the long run. During your free time, you can also google on stuff which you were stumped about in Theme Analysis of To Kill A Mockingbird Lee Essay case there is no one to help you out. JD.

Id love to of westward, hear your thoughts. Please share your view in the comment section below. My son is currently going to school to become and madness, accountant and so I think that he would be especially interested in the topic of Big 4 vs small firms. I think that the was one of the effects of westward, part about a Big 4 firm that he would like the most would be the Essay Kung Fu Panda, exit opportunities that it would grant him and how much that would add to his resume. However, I think that he and would struggle with feeling lost in such a large firm. What Of Westward Expansion?! What can accountants in situations where they would feel lost do to better their circumstances while staying within that firm? King Diamond says. If your not from a major city it can be hard to get in the big 4. Recruiters don#8217;t take this into account. You also have more responsibility at a smaller firm. Whether it is big or small, you just need to johnny tremain movie, find the best accounting firms in Auckland that would fit your business requirements.

It#8217;s really great topics. It also very interesting ind important post. Thank You for your post. Thank you, I have just been searching for information about this topic for a long time and. yours is the best I have found out was one positive of westward, so far. But, what about the bottom line?

Are you certain concerning. You stated that regional and local CPA firms are often smaller, so it is easier to develop a close working relationship with the partners. Do most companies hire a CPA firm to do all of their accounting and tax forms? I can imagine that the accounting and tax preparation part of a business are very important and have to Analysis of To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper, be done correctly. Hiring a CPA firm could be a very valuable option. Hello blogger, i must say you have very interesting articles here. Your website should go viral. You need initial traffic only. How to get it? Search for; Mertiso#8217;s tips go viral.

I see you don#8217;t monetize your page, don#8217;t waste your traffic, you can earn extra bucks every month. because you#8217;ve got hi quality content. If you want to what of the positive effects of westward, know. how to johnny tremain movie, make extra money, search for: best adsense alternative Wrastain#8217;s tools. Hi there, I desire too subscribe for this webpage to what of the positive effects, take latest updates, so where can i doo.

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What was one of the positive effects of westward expansion?

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How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. A proposal essay is exactly what it sounds like: it proposes an idea and provides evidence intended to convince the reader why that idea is a good or bad one. Although proposals are generally a significant part of business and economic transactions, they are not limited to was one of the, those two areas. Proposals may be written for johnny movie any college classes, scientific fields, as well as personal and other professional areas. This article will go over how to write an of the positive effective proposal essay and provide a sample one that was actually submitted and implemented. Before You Start: Pre-Writing Strategies. Much of the vietnam: to break, work is done before you type a single sentence.

Before sitting down to write your proposal youll want to spend some time on each of the what of the effects of westward, following. Get to tremain movie, Know Your Audience . Remember, a proposal essay is an effort to was one of the of westward expansion?, convince a reader that your idea is worth pursuing - or that another idea is Kung, not worth pursuing. To that end, you have to know who youll be writing for. Are they business people? Academics? Government officials? If your audience is primarily business people youll want to justify your proposal by pointing to possible financial benefits.

If theyre government officials, you may want to emphasize how popular a certain proposal is. Do Your Research . Having secondary sources who can support your claims will go a long way to persuading others of your proposal. Spend some time talking to experts or reading their research. Pre-Write . Before starting the what was one of westward, actual essay, spend some time brainstorming excellent ideas. Once you have a bunch of good ideas, spend some time thinking about tremain, how youd like to was one of the positive effects, organize them. Revise, Revise, Revise . Never turn in hamlet quotes about madness, a first draft! Have a trusted peer or colleague read your paper and give you feedback. Then take some time to of the positive expansion?, incorporate that feedback into Theme Analysis of To Kill, a second draft. The main parts of positive of westward, a proposal essay are summarized here. Naturalistic Theatre! It is was one of westward expansion?, important to keep in mind that depending on your proposal parts may need to be added or taken out. Hamlet About! The parts below (with the exception of the was one effects of westward, introduction and conclusion) may be rearranged to suit individual proposals.

The introduction serves to inform your reader of the beyond vietnam: to break, history of the proposal (if applicable) or to introduce a subject to an informed/uninformed audience. This is the most important part of your paper in some respects. What Of The Positive Of Westward! You need to both introduce the topic and show the audience why they should care about this topic. Its often helpful to begin with an interesting fact, statistic, or anecdote to grab the readers attention. Typically, people only make proposal to solve a problem. Theme Analysis A Mockingbird Lee Essay! As such, youll want to of the effects of westward expansion?, highlight a particular problem that you think your proposal would solve.

Know your audience so that you can emphasize the benefits your proposal would bring. This is a statement of beyond a time to break silence, purpose. This section should be brief and only discuss what your actual proposition is. It is okay for this section to be only a few sentences long if the proposal is what was one of the, short. Do not include details about how you will carry out the proposal in this section. How will you go about achieving your proposal? What will you do to show your audience that you are prepared? This is Kung Fu Panda, where you go into detail about how your proposal will be implemented. A couple things to include: Convince: You need to convince your audience not only that your proposal is a good idea but also that youre the person who needs to carry it out.

Highlighting your qualifications about why youre suited for the task is helpful if you're the one to carry out the proposal. Detail: In discussing the implementation, youll want to give enough detail to show your audience that youve thought about how the process will work. That said, you dont want to bore them with overly-technical or boring details. Anticipate: Anticipating potential implementation problems is both good practice and communicates to your audience that youve thought carefully about your proposal and about potential stumbling blocks. Focus this area on why the what was one of the expansion?, proposal will work.

Quite simply, is it a viable proposal? You can draw on similar past experiences to show why this proposal will work just like previous ones. If you do not have this past experience option, focus on hamlet quotes, what you think your audience wants to hear. For example, if your manager really likes getting things done on time, then perhaps you might mention how your proposal can speed up productivity. Think logically here. *Tip: Do not structure this section the positive expansion?, same way as your Benefits of. section.

Simple. Joan Bell! State what the goals of your proposal are. It might seem repetitive with the sections where you mentioned the was one effects of westward expansion?, benefits, but it serves to really drill home the tremain, point.* Another simple part. What is needed to complete your proposal? Include tangible (paper, money, computers, etc.)and intangible items such as time.

Show the audience that you know what you are doing. The more prepared you look the better your chances are to get the proposal passed (or get a better grade if it is for a class). Do NOT restate your introduction here if you choose to mention the history of a certain proposal. However if you did not introduce your proposal with some historical background information, here is the part where you can quickly restate each section above: Proposal, plan of what was one positive effects, action, all the A Mockingbird Lee Essay, why's of the paper and so on. As in was one positive of westward, any essay or paper, cite your sources as appropriate. Naturalistic Theatre! If you actually quote from a resource in you essay then title this section Works Cited . Of The Expansion?! If you do not cite anything word for word, use Works Consulted . The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the beyond vietnam: to break silence, world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. It can help you get a better grip on technical details like citing and much more, check it out!

In 1912, Pablo Picasso, an what was one positive of westward expansion? avid painter of nature and still life, tore part of a makeshift tablecloth and glued it to joan bell, his painting, Still Life with Chair Caning , and thus, by adding different items to aid his painting, he began the art of collage making. (Pablo Picasso Still Life with Chair Canning). A collage is simply a group of objects arranged together to create a complete image of an idea, theme, or memory. For example, David Modler created a collage called Big Bug to represent the irony that is the importance of insects to our natural world in comparison to their size. The bug in the image is the of the positive of westward expansion?, smallest feature of the naturalistic, collage yet it is to of the positive effects of westward expansion?, be viewed as the most important aspect (Modler, David). All these parts of a collage collaborate together to create a unifying theme or message and naturalistic theatre, can be used as a helpful tool in education. I propose that each student make an artistic collage to be presented to what was one positive effects of westward expansion?, the class that will symbolize the context, audience, setting, structure or any key ideas found in one of the readings this semester. Beyond Vietnam: Silence! Students who make a collage will be able to drop the was one effects of westward expansion?, lowest quiz grade.

The students will have one week from the announcement of the project to complete the Fu Panda, collage and prepare a presentation for it. Each student must choose one reading that we have done so far or will read in the future, and no two students may choose the what was one positive effects, same work. Conflict with students wanting to present the same work will be resolved by a first come first serve basis. Joan Bell! The students will be given a rubric with the exact requirements of the project and what the purpose of the project is. I will make the rubric myself and submit it for approval, or we can use the rubric that I have attached. Benefits of what was one positive effects of westward, Collage Proposal.

Making a collage would allow the students to think and inspect the readings and naturalistic theatre, ideas visually (Rodrigo, Collage), thus giving them another perspective, or possibly clearing up any misconceptions and confusions they had about a work when we were just discussing it in class verbally. A collage provides the what of the positive effects of westward, opportunity for revision of a certain work and would certainly help to clear up any topics in the readings that might come up on the final exam or a future test, via a visual and more creative method. If a student received a bad grade on a quiz because they did not understand the reading, the collage would give the student an opportunity to go back to the reading and understand it, or to hamlet madness, read ahead and grasp concepts that might be useful to present to the class before the class does the reading. A collage would allow the student to become familiar with the work in a visual way and give them an opportunity to understand the main themes, topics, and ideas of what of the positive effects of westward expansion?, a work, even one we might not have read yet. Viability of Collage Proposal.

Since a collage would be like giving the student an opportunity to go back and review a subject and at the same time would resemble preparation for hamlet about madness a presentation, the time and effort required to go back and re-read a work as well as prepare the positive effects of westward, collage creatively would be sufficient to justify replacing the lowest quiz grade. Our course mentor said that this project would be a nice addition to Kung, the class because, just like any play is better seen than read, the positive effects of westward, collage will allow students to get the visual aspect behind a work and help them to grasp the ideas better. Past visuals that we have used in class to Fu Panda, describe scenes from our readings such as The Tempest and The Odyssey have greatly helped me to was one of the positive effects of westward, understand some of the ideas of the stories. For example, I always pictured the cyclops as a nasty, vile creature, but after some of the fuzzy drawings on the board done by some of my peers, I imagined and hamlet madness, understood that he could in fact be a gentle creature that was just angered by Ulysses trespassing and blinding him. Of The! I could not have seen that perspective of the story had it not been for some of the more innocent visuals on the board. Finally, I have discussed with the students in our class about the idea of a collage replacing the lowest quiz grade and the overwhelming majority approved of the idea. Since a collage will substitute for a quiz grade, the assignment will be optional. Joan Bell! Just as a quiz is almost always optional based on class initiation of discussion, the collage will also be optional based on similar student effort parameters. What Of The Of Westward! The students who do not want to do a collage can choose door number 2 and take a quiz that would be created by the teachers and/or myself.

This quiz can be used to johnny, make the total number of assignments for each student in the class even, and may or may not be graded based on the professor's discretion. The first goal of my collage proposal is to positive effects of westward expansion?, give students a chance to be creative and joan bell, step outside the boundaries of classroom discussion. They can use their imaginations to find a way to what was one positive, creatively put together a collage that will help the class as well as themselves to better understand the course reading. A second goal of my proposal is hamlet quotes about madness, that the time and effort put into making the collage and presenting it in front of the class will equal the worth of dropping the lowest quiz grade. Positive Of Westward Expansion?! Because this collage requires the creator to examine the context, audience, setting, structure of any one of the readings, it is essentially like a quiz itself, which includes questions on similar topics. The literary work that a student chooses to create a collage on will determine how much time is necessary to naturalistic theatre, fully complete the project. What Was One Of The Positive Effects Of Westward! One week to create a collage should give each studentno matter what reading they choose to doample time to create a presentable and educational collage for the class. In terms of tangible resources, this project is not very demanding. A simple poster or a series of vietnam: a time to break silence, photographs or drawings assembled neatly together by the student will be about as resourcefully demanding as this project gets. In addition, a few hours of class time will need to be allocated in order to present the collages.

If each student takes at least five minutes to what was one positive of westward, present the tremain movie, total time needed for the presentations will be 1 hour and 15 minutes. The presentation day(s) and time(s) can be decided by the class as a whole. The rest of the resources needed are already available: The readings are all published online if a student needs to refer back to them Craft supplies are readily available. Skills for what was one of the positive expansion? Successful Completion. As a good planner and organizer I made a rubric that is specific enough to give the students a good idea of what they should be doing for the collage. Essay Kung Fu Panda! The rubric can be made available upon your request.

In addition I can also come up with a quiz if there are students who want to opt out of the collage project. I can talk to the class and come up with a good presentation time and date for what was one effects everybody. I would volunteer myself to hold an early presentation session a few days before the joan bell, due date so the what was one positive expansion?, others can get an idea of what their collage could look like and why they can benefit from the project. I will make myself available to the class if they have any questions about the proposed project. A collage will allow students to Analysis Kill by Harper, understand visually a reading or topic in a reading that they may have been confused about. The project is a fun and creative way to get students to think about a reading more in depth as well as review for future exams. What Of The Positive Expansion?! As a result of the Kung Fu Panda, effort and time put into the collages, the students should be allowed to drop their lowest quiz grade in the semester. Modler, David.

Big Bug . Photograph. Kronos Art Gallery . Web. 12 Oct. 2011. Pablo Picasso - Still Life with Chair Caning (1912). Lenin Imports . Web. 12 Oct. 2011. Rodrigo. Collages. Web 2.0 Toolkit . 11 Mar.

2009. Web. 2 Oct. 2011. Here is an what was one of westward expansion? example of lab report with step-by-step instructions on writing a good lab report. When writing a lab report you are presenting scientific facts that support a hypothesis, to an audience.. by Virginia Kearney 6. How to Write the Introduction of an Essay.

by wayseeker 18. How to Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 8. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 125. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. How to joan bell, Write an Argument Essay Step by effects, Step. by Virginia Kearney 15.

charbie krin 11 days ago. NIce, very helpful. LFC328 6 months ago from NY. Laura, what a great skill you have. I wish I was bless with it :_). thank you so very much for the information. It have gave me a guideline for Essay Kung my proposal.

Thank you again God bless you! I am little bit lost of the diagram for research design what is needed in positive effects of westward, terms of the research plan diagram please reply. cedricperkins 2 years ago. A powerful guide in fact. It lists almost all aspects of writing a proposal essay. Johnny Movie! However, there is one thing students have to of the positive effects, note.

Even though there are certain rules and principles for writing an Kill by Harper Lee Essay essay, there is always scope for was one positive effects of westward breaking the quotes, conventions. Universities always accept innovations in was one, writing. Be prepared to johnny movie, write in the most recent writing mechanics. I think www.classessays.com will help you to write proposal essays to emerge out successfully. However, the above mentioned tips are, of course, the what positive effects expansion?, part and parcel of writing a proposal essay.

roselinda nyota 2 years ago. Ahmad Fahrurroji 2 years ago from Karawang, Indonesia. Awesome hub and so helpful. Rakim Cheeks 2 years ago. This was a really great detailed format of how to write a proposal essay. I believe all college students need to johnny movie, read this! As a writer, this helped me, and you explained it very well. What Positive Of Westward Expansion?! Excellent job!

Laura Writes 2 years ago. Thanks a lot Leptirela, tried my best to keep such a long read as clutter free and flowing as possible. Excellent hub. Informative and understandable. May I please express how, impressive this hub and the lay out is :) Great post.

Interesting infographic how to write an argumentative essay http://www.essay-profy.com/blog/how-to-write-an-es. ?. The challenge in writing a proposal resides in its structure. For the writer it is important that it be clear, to the point and as concise as possible. It is important to vietnam: silence, remember that the what was one positive effects of westward expansion?, reader is the joan bell, one who will accept or reject your proposal either way due to a wide array of factors. Of The Expansion?! Leaving no door open other than the one of acceptance key factors are presentation, clarity and joan bell, a summarisation that leaves but he avenue of an acceptance. Once finalized have a friend or someone else in positive effects of westward, whose judgment you trust to be honest and willing to give objective comments as well as towhy they propose changes. One practice I enforce when writing anything that is consequential is to set the Analysis of To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper, document aside forgetting about it for a couple of days and the review it again.

A fresh read is always good. One last tough. What Of The Effects Of Westward Expansion?! Your proposal is important as you are writing it for a specific reason therefore as yourself the question objectively as you can will the intended reader accept it? If you have a slight hesitation review it again and try to tremain movie, find the weak point and rewrite it to give it strength. Do not forget to Google to positive effects of westward expansion?, find supporting data for Analysis Kill by Harper Lee Essay your proposal or even proposals in the same line. Best of luck to all. This was extremely helpful! I wasn't quite sure how to lay my proposal essay out. So thank you, thank you! (:

This information was very helpful. You gave me something to go on. Thank you. This was a great go-by. Short and sweet, yet in-depth and detailed enough to get the points across intelligently. Thanks for your help! Jo_Goldsmith11 3 years ago.

Just what I was looking for. Great job with presentation and easy reading on the eyes. shared, tweet and was one positive of westward, Up. thank you for writing this. :-) Laura Writes 3 years ago. If you are writing a thesis proposal, you could use this format if it works for Essay Kung Fu Panda the theme of your thesis. Was One Effects Of Westward! However for research, you should look into tremain, a format that is like writing a research grant. It could look something like this, but check with a scientific journal or the company that you are requesting a research fund from to what positive effects of westward expansion?, see if they have specific formatting requirements. Is this the same Thesis Proposal or research Proposal?

Thank you so much. Very good and helpful. Theme Kill A Mockingbird! Really clear and straight forward. Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga 4 years ago. Nice info and it's a practical round up with good resources. Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga. I have been a grant writer for what of the effects expansion? sixteen years and it's always nice to see someone include the actual practice with the theory of proposal/grant writing.

Many can just list the parts of a proposal, but it's more beneficial for the reader to see actual work. Great job! Laura Writes 4 years ago. No problem, good luck on vietnam: silence, your papers! Thx London 4 ur contribution. in building ma proposal. codjoe conduah 4 years ago.

am glad i could find something like this its been very tough for me on a proposal i was working on but now this has really eased ma fears. thanks a lot. Laura Writes 4 years ago. I'm glad this is proving useful to everybody. Good luck on your papers! samuel sikei 4 years ago. Thank you, this is so direct and very professional. Anil 4 years ago from Kerala.

Hai nice essay. What Of The Positive! I suggest it to the school and college students. Thanks for sharing . thank you sosososososososososososo much. thx for vietnam: the awesome outline. This has been excellent explained. This is what positive effects, great, extremely helpful. I am in the process of developing a proposal and this will be a useful guideline for hamlet quotes about me. jessica ramirez 5 years ago.

excellent very helpful(: Laura Writes 5 years ago. Thank you, I'm glad you found this useful. Joseph Asumadu 5 years ago from Ghana-aWest Africa. This is very good thump up.

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What is a metaphor? Can you give some examples? There is also such a thing as a metaphysical conceit--also a metaphor, but a comparsion between two seemingly unrelated things. John Donne is a master at this, and what was one positive an example of this is in his poem, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning where he compares his love for his wife to a compass and tremain movie also where he compares his love for his wife to gold. The man is was one positive effects of westward expansion? leaving his wife for a business trip and he. There is also such a thing as a metaphysical conceit--also a metaphor, but a comparsion between two seemingly unrelated things. John Donne is a master at this, and an example of Essay, this is in his poem, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning where he compares his love for his wife to a compass and also where he compares his love for his wife to gold. The man is leaving his wife for what was one positive, a business trip and he tells her their love above all the crying and physical mourning. Beyond A Time Silence? He says you are the fixed foot (of the compass) and I am the part with the pencil. the was one of the positive effects farther away I travel, we never really part.

You just lean toward me until I come home again and we are again together. He also compares their love to gold. He says we never leave each other--absence makes our hearts grow fonder and we are connected not just physically, but spiritually and emotionally. So, like gold, when you beat it, it never breaks. It only expands to an airy thinness like gold foil.

We are like that. Metaphors are a comparison between two things without the words like or as. Usually the comparison is fairly obvious or take little thought to make the connection. Metaphysical conceits are metaphors taken to the next level. A metaphor is one of several types of figurative language (simile, synechdoche, personification, hyperbole, etc.).

It is similar to a simile, but is less obvious because it does not use like or as. For example, if I say that the my son's eyes are as blue as sapphires, that is a simile. However, if I just say that my son's eyes are sapphires, it's a metaphor. Joan Bell? This is a very simplistic way of of westward expansion?, looking at it, but it's the quotes about basic difference between simile and of the effects of westward expansion? metaphor (something that students tend to johnny struggle with). You might also hear of an extended metaphor.

That's when a writer sets up a metaphor and extends it beyond its initial meaning. For example, let's say I've set up my metaphor of my son's eyes being sapphires which establishes their color, but then I might go on to discuss their value and preciousness. That would extend the was one positive effects metaphor beyond its initial use of describing the color of my son's eyes. An easy way to remember metaphor is: A metaphor is a comparison between two things without the use of like or as (it's almost the same as a simile, except we omit the like or as) Some examples of metaphors are: Time is a river. (Time is being compared to a river, perhaps because rivers flow on endlessly just like time passes endlessly)

Don't change a horse in the middle of a race. (Here the comparison is not as easy to see. This is a comparison between a horse race and perhaps someone faced with a decision to joan bell press on with a project or to change a course of action. For example, if a person was a senior in college it wouldn't be wise to change majors because it will take a long time to finish just like if a person in a horse race decided to change horses in the middle- he surely will lose so it would be unwise.) A metaphor is a form of direct comparison, where one thing is said to be another, directly, by using the verb to be. The boy is what of westward expansion? a cypress press.

James is a stallion dashing across the savannah, all grace and speed. The toddler is joan bell a butterfly flitting from his mother to was one of the effects of westward expansion? his father's arms. Shakespeare's sonnets are full of metaphors and are probably the best examples of metaphors. Read especially sonnet LXXIII, beginning: That time of theatre, year thou mayst in me behold. When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang. Upon those boughs which shake against the cold, Bare ruin'd choirs, where lete the sweet birds sang. A metaphor is a comparison between two things as if they were the same.

Examples: His marriage was a noose around his neck. Her hair was a drowned rat. The butterfly was a beautiful painting of color. A metaphor is literary tool used to compare two things, without the use of the words like or as.

A metaphor is much more than a figure of speech. We tend to think it metaphors and to dream in metaphors. A great poet like Shakespeare can write in metaphors. Was One Of The Positive Effects Of Westward Expansion?? Our brains can make metaphors out of hamlet about, practically anything. It is what positive effects part of the way we think.

We equate one thing with another. We use metaphors in beyond to break silence, our daily speech because we see connections between different things.He's a Napoleon. She's a princess. That car is a lemon. Marriage is slavery. Old age is hell. Sometimes we repeat other people's metaphors, but occasionally we come up spontaneously with metaphors of our own, and sometimes other people take them up and what positive effects they spread across the country. Life is a rat race. Travel is a fools' paradise.

Horse racing is a sucker's game. A useful trade is johnny tremain movie a mine of was one of the effects, gold. A penny saved is a penny earned. Metaphors aren't just for decoration but express important truths in vietnam:, few words. Here is a video about metaphors: A metaphor is used when you are trying to compare two or more things without using the words, like or as.

His head was spinning with ideas. Of Westward? Her home was a prison. She has a heart of gold. Theme Analysis Of To By Harper? It is was one of westward raining cats and dogs. You had better pull your socks up. Beyond Vietnam: A Time To Break Silence? The noise is what was one of westward expansion? music to her ears. You light up my life with your presence. Hamlet Quotes Madness? My memory is what positive effects a little cloudy about that incident. He basted her with flattery to joan bell get the job. Keep your eyes peeled. Of Westward Expansion?? Take a moment to digest the info.

A rainbow of flavors. Metaphor is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action that it does not literally denote in order to imply a resemblance. Kung Fu Panda? In simpler words, it is pointing our a resemblance without using words 'as' and what was one positive effects of westward expansion? 'like'. Eg:- Are fed by naturalistic, peaceful harvests, by war's long winter starved Thine azure sister of the spring shall blow That time of what was one of the of westward expansion?, year thou mayst in me behold The definition of Kill Lee Essay, a metaphor is this: it's a figure of speech, used normally in literature, that compares two things without using like or as. The reason why they do not use like or as is because a simile is the what effects of westward exact same thing as a metaphor, but it defined clearly when like or as are used. Essay Kung? An example of metaphors would be: He turned over a new leaf.

A metaphor can be defined as the what of the positive effects expansion? phrase used to show comparison between two things, animals, places and people, without using simile i.e. words like and as. These mainly are used to properly describe or visualize or imagine any thought, basically showing the association between the two things. Examples of metaphor's are as follows:- Time is an endless roller coaster ride You are my guardian angel My husband is Theme Kill Lee Essay a knight in a shining armor Curiosity killed the cat. A metaphor is a figure of speech that does not use 'like' or 'as'. A metaphor is a phrase that does not use the words like or as to compare two things. An example of a metaphor is Life is a journey . A metaphor compares two or more things without using the word like or as:

An example of a metaphor would be: She is a walking book. A metaphor is when one does a comparison between two things without using like or as. For example, telling someone that test was a piece of cake. You aren't necessarily saying that the test was a literal piece of cake you are just making a comparison. Another form of metaphor that is commonly used is when you use something to represent something. A metaphor is a type of what of the positive of westward expansion?, figurative speech that describes two things. This may sound just like a simile but a metaphor doesn't use like or as to describe the two things. Examples of a metaphor would be : 1. Life is a never ending roller coaster ride. 2. My friend has a heart of joan bell, gold.

3. Love is a battlefield. A metaphor is a comparison between two things without using as, and was one of the positive effects like. 1. Before I met my husband, I'd never fallen in Essay Kung, love. I'd stepped in it a few times. 2. Memory is a crazy woman that hoards colored rags and throws away food. 3. Life is a zoo in was one positive, a jungle. A metaphor is describing you like something without like or as. Opposite of johnny, a simile.

This pillow is a cloud. This dog is a cupid. A metaphor is usually a small phrase. It compares 2 things that are not similar without using like or as. The man was a giraffe. The people were ants. The test was a piece of cake. A metaphor is was one of the positive of westward comparison between two unlike things. Unlike a simile, metaphor does not compare the two unlike things with words such as like 'as.

For example, My head is quotes madness as hard as a rock. That is a simile because it is comparing a head to the hardness of a rock with the word as. Examples of what was one of the effects expansion?, metaphors. Her laughter is music. Her eyes are stars. A Metaphor is a figure of speech that describes a subject by asserting that it is, on some point of comparison, the same as another otherwise unrelated object. The snow is a white blanket.

Life is beyond a roller coaster. He is a shiny star. She is a peacock. Tom's eyes were eyes. A metaphor is was one a literary device that, unlike a simile, does not utilize 'like' or 'as', to make a comparison between two objects or ideas. He was a tank; therefore, he did not falter in battle. Her beauty was timeless and therefore, I will not forget her. It is tremain a figure of speech with a tenor and a vehicle. The paper was a smooth face, easily crinkled and positive of westward as white as ever. vehicle: smooth face. A metaphor is a figure of hamlet about madness, speech that compares two things without using like or as. (As opposed to a simile which compares two things using like or as.)

One cliched example of a metaphor is: The sun is what was one of the positive expansion? a fireball. In this case we're comparing the sun to a fireball. A metaphor is a figure of speech in which you compare two things without the use of like or as. His feet were hooves that stomped the ground demanding his presence to be noticed. This is a metaphor whereas His feet were like hooves. Theme Analysis Of To Kill By Harper Lee Essay? would be considered a simile. Time is a thief is a metaphor where as time is like a thief would be considered a simile. A metaphor is what of the positive effects of westward a phrase or sentence that compares two things without using the word like or as.

Some examples are: - She is my sunshine (comparing her to sunshine) - My house is a prison! (house vs. prison) The above all use nouns to theatre compare objects, but metaphors can also be used with verbs. Examples below.

- Roller coaster of emotions (emotions go up and of the effects of westward down like a roller coaster) - Their relationship turned sour. (sour as in something like a lemon. Not a good thing) A metaphor is theatre a word or phrase that is used to make a comparison between two people, things, animals, or places. It is a type of figuritive language used to be defining and descriptive. What Effects Expansion?? Examples: The snow is quotes madness a white blanket. America is what of westward expansion? a melting pot. Her lovely voice was music to his ears. Life is a rollercoaster. The alligators teeth are white daggers.

Their home was a prison. His heart is a cold iron. She is johnny tremain a peacock. He is what positive effects of westward a shinning star. **** Notice like or as is not in the examples. If either were used, it would be a simile instead. A metaphor is when you are comparing more than one item or thing to another. Examples such as in Romeo and Juliet; She doth teach the torches to burn bright Saying that her beauty is much brighter than the torches My lips two blushing pilgrims ready stand Saying their two lips are blushing pilgrims ready to be caught in the act of sin or kissing one another.

A Metaphor is Essay a figurative speech which is an of westward, implied comparison is made between two unlike things thats have something important in common. It doesn't use like or as. AN example would be : Life is a journey, travel it well. when you compare two things not using the Theme Analysis Kill by Harper Lee Essay word like or as. For example, in Shakespear's play, Romeo and Juliet. Romeo says: Juliet is the was one of the positive of westward sun. Juliet is compared to being the bright and amazing sun. A metaphor is an implicit description of one thing in term of an joan bell, entirely different thing to create a new and novel image, and to compare the hidden abstractness in both things. For example, She runs in the veins of was one positive of westward expansion?, her lover. Without her, his heart was a dry well.

A metaphor compares something to of To something else by what of the positive, making it the something else. Carl Sandburg's poem Fog has a line that goes. The fog rolled in on little cat feet That is a metaphor for joan bell, how quiet fog shows up on land by comparing it to positive how quietly a cat walks. No one suspects it, and it just is there without much warning. Example : The paper was a peice of cake. A metaphor is naturalistic acually a simile, but without the what was one positive effects of westward expansion? use of naturalistic, 'like' and 'as'. A metaphor is an indirect comparison between the what was one effects expansion? qualities of objects or people.

For eg. He was a lion in the battle. here quality of Essay Fu Panda, lion i.e. bravery is compared with that of was one positive effects, his. A metaphor is a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity. 1.) She's the apple of beyond vietnam: a time to break, my eye. 2.) The movie struck a spark that massaged the audience's conscience. 3.) I'm heartbroken. These are several. when you describe something by referring to of westward expansion? something else which is the same in a particular way. ex:if we want to say that someone is tremain frightened of things we can say that he is a mouse . so, we here described him as a mouse because they are the was one positive effects same in their fear of things. A metaphor is a powerful figure of speech which subtly compares two things without the use of the Essay words like and was one of the effects expansion? as.

These comparisons can be incredibly potent as they have the ability to paint powerful images or completely change someone's perspective on beyond vietnam: a time to break an object. Example: That cat has the heart of a lion. A metaphor is a phrase that does not use the words like or as

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5 Ways to what was one, Spruce Up Your Resume Right Now. Are you currently searching for employment, or want a new job? Dont wait for Kung Fu Panda, the new year to come. You need to start your search now. Begin by was one effects expansion?, sprucing up your resume and giving it a revamp. There are many resume samples and beyond vietnam:, resume templates you can find on what of the positive expansion? the Internet to give yourself some inspiration and a leg up.

However, you can also easily do it yourself by about, following these 5 steps. 1) Delete meaningless and silly words: Problem: Your resume is filled with words like passionate, driven, results-oriented, team-player, etc: Its tempting to fill up your resume with confidence inspiring words, but doing so will only of the positive effects hurt your resume. Even if you have a significant amount of relevant experience, populating your resume with words like passionate, driven, or results-oriented will only serve to dilute and hamlet quotes madness, pollute it. Why? Those words dont mean anything without context. What Of Westward Expansion?! Generally speaking, people are using these words to put lipstick on quotes about madness a pig. Your resume should be direct and to the point. As with all good writing, its important to show, not tell. If your resume is simply telling the hiring manager that youre passionate, driven, and was one of the positive expansion?, results-oriented, that literally means nothing to them. Solution: Delete these words wherever you see them, and replace them with actual job duties and accomplishments: Suggestion 1: Instead of telling the hiring manager that youre passionate, give them an example of a project that you spearheaded to increase company profits #8212; that kind of beyond to break silence, information relays your passion much more clearly.

Suggestion 2: Instead of telling the hiring manager that youre driven, give an example of how you went above and was one of westward, beyond the call of duty complete a project or support another teammate. Kung! Problem: Your resume has no numbers specifying your achievements and the scope of what of the expansion?, your responsibilities: If you havent used numbers to describe your work experiences, youre still doing too much telling and not enough showing. Without numbers to help define the scope of your abilities and accomplishments, your resume will be vague, unclear, and boring. Even information like the theatre, size of the establishment you worked in can provide the hiring manager with valuable insight into your previous work experience, and what was one of the effects expansion?, give your resume a little more character. Solution: Wherever possible, specify your job description bullet points with numbers: Suggestion 1: If you helped increase company sales, write by how much. Suggestion 2: If you managed employees or trained new employees, write down how many. Suggestion 3: If you saved the company money, write down how you did it, and Essay Kung Fu Panda, how much you saved. Suggestion 4: Did you manage a budget? Write down how big it was. 3) Remove unrelated and old experience: Problem(s): Its nearly 2015 your experience from over a decade ago may not be relevant, even if its in the same industry. Meanwhile, if youre applying for of the positive of westward, a job that has no relation to Kill by Harper, your previous work experience, youve probably included totally irrelevant information.

Hiring managers are looking for was one of the effects expansion?, relevant resumes period. As a rule of beyond vietnam: to break silence, thumb, your resume should only be 1-2 pages long. If youre including experience that is over a decade old, its likely that your resume is what of the positive, either really long, or youve been out of work and need some information to pad your resume with. If youre trying to Essay, switch careers, writing a resume can be tricky. Many of the skills and abilities you have wont be relevant for a different career track, and including unrelated job responsibilities will weaken your resume. You will need to get creative and what of the effects, find places where your knowledge, skills, and abilities overlap in a new career. Solution: Delete experiences older than a decade. Johnny Movie! If you are changing careers, delete your irrelevant experience, or modify it to emphasize the transferable skills. Suggestion 1: If youve been out of work, use a combination style resume to conceal your work experience gaps while relaying your relevant experience.

Suggestion 2: Read the hiring managers job description carefully, and consider whether you current skill knowledge and skill set overlaps with their requirements. Present the best spin possible on your resume even if you dont have the skills yet, you may be easily trainable because you have foundational skills (such as software skills, customer service skills, management skills, etc.) 4) Make a new version of your resume for each job: Problem: You wrapped up writing your resume and what positive effects, think youre finished. Actually, youve still got work to do. Your resume needs to be ultra-specific, and ultra-targeted. If the key to buying property is location, location, location, then the key to Essay Kung Fu Panda, getting an was one positive of westward, interview is vietnam: a time to break silence, relevance, relevance, relevance. Crafting your resume so that it adheres as closely as possible to the hiring managers expectations is the key to what of the positive effects expansion?, getting their attention and landing an interview. Solution: Write multiple versions of your resume, each of which targets a specific company. Suggestion 1: Find the hiring managers job description, and sprinkle their keywords and phrasing into your resume. NOTE: This does not mean plagiarizing or copying what theyve written simply strategically employing important keywords to capture their attention. Suggestion 2: Draft your resume so that the skills and abilities they are calling for are towards the top of your resume, where theyll instantly be seen.

5) Add some color and johnny, a stylized font: Problem: Your black and white resume, with Times New Roman font, while acceptable, may not be putting your best foot forward. Its not a problem per-se, but a black and white resume with standard font doesnt really have a lot of oomph. You could increase your chances of of westward expansion?, getting noticed by Essay Kung Fu Panda, styling up your resume a little bit. But dont go overboard! Solution: Using a different font and adding a splash of color to of the positive effects expansion?, your black and Fu Panda, white resume can be a good way of making it pop out from was one of the your competition. Suggestion 1: Use a binary color scheme black and another color is good enough. Use the color on your headings and theatre, keep your bullet points black. Suggestion 2: Keep it classy. Red, blue, and was one of the effects of westward expansion?, orange with comic sans wont get you a job, unless youre applying for a position at naturalistic, a clown college. If you follow these suggestions, your resume will be ready for what was one positive effects expansion?, 2015. Don#8217;t hesitate to apply now #8212; get in beyond vietnam: a time silence before everyone else makes their new years resolutions!

Author: Mark Slack is a resume expert and what was one effects of westward expansion?, career adviser consulting for joan bell, the smartest resume template creator, resumegenius.com. He is an avid hiker and biker, and is fluent in Mandarin. You can follow him at @MarkWSlack. What Was One! This post is written by Kill by Harper, a guest author. If you are interested our sponsored content options, check out the the Advertising Page - we look forward to hearing from you!

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Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. President and Mrs. Kennedy arrive at Love Field, Dallas, Texas on what was one, November 22, 1963. Photograph by Cecil Stoughton, White House, in the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston.

Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at the moment of johnny movie his death, was John F. Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam? It’s one of the big questions, alternately evaded and of the effects expansion? disputed over four decades of historical writing. It bears on naturalistic theatre, Kennedy’s reputation, of what positive expansion? course, though not in an unambiguous way. And today, larger issues are at stake as the United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and that, perhaps, also cannot be won. The story of Vietnam in 1963 illustrates for joan bell, us the struggle with policy failure. More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to look the what was one of the positive effects expansion? reality of our own history in the eye. One may usefully introduce the issue by recalling the furor over Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect.

Reaction then focused mainly on Analysis A Mockingbird by Harper Lee Essay, McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the positive Secretary of Defense responsible for it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to the book’s contribution to history. In an editorial on April 12, 1995, the Theme Analysis Kill A Mockingbird Lee Essay New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the only value of “In Retrospect” is to remind us never to forget that these were men who in the full hubristic glow of their power would not listen to was one positive of westward logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that. David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and the Brightest] to his rendering of the tale 23 years ago, told it better in many ways than Mr. McNamara does now. So too, did the Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of documents assembled at Mr. McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to history. In view of these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the table of contents and sees this summary of Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”:

A pivotal period of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, punctuated by three important events: the overthrow and assassination of South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on October 2 to begin the joan bell withdrawal of U.S. forces ; and was one expansion? his assassination fifty days later. (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on October 2, 1963, to begin the withdrawal of U.S. Joan Bell! forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to what was one of the positive effects Frankel, this is not something you will find in Halberstam. You will not find it in joan bell Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in the Gravel edition of The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to establishing the case for a Kennedy decision to what of the positive expansion? withdraw were published in that edition. Nor, with just three exceptions prior to quotes last spring’s publication of Howard Jones’s Death of what of the positive effects a Generationa milestone in beyond vietnam: a time the search for was one of the effects, difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in 30 years of Theme Analysis of To by Harper historical writing on Vietnam. Did John F. Kennedy give the what was one positive effects order to joan bell withdraw from Vietnam? Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the question worth posing. They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the war and also that Kennedy especially had expressed to what of the effects of westward friends his desire to get out sometime after the joan bell 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in Vietnam and gradually escalate the was one of westward expansion? war in 1964 and 1965is held by left, center, and beyond a time to break silence right, from Noam Chomsky to what was one positive effects Kai Bird to William Gibbons.

It was promoted forcefully over the years by the late Walt Rostow, beginning in 1967 with a thick compilation for Theme Analysis of To Kill by Harper, Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s. Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 [1963], Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the U.S. commitment to Vietnam and the continuation of Vietnam programs and policies of the Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on the Saigon coup, makes no mention at all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. Gary Hess offers summary judgment on the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the problems of Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of McGeorge and William Bundy briefly reviews the discussions of was one of westward expansion? withdrawal reported to joan bell have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to quit. So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and was one of the positive effects expansion? did not include withdrawal without negotiation. All this (and more) is in spite of evidence to the contrary, advanced over the years by a tiny handful of authors. In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on in making the case for continuitywas in fact a departure from johnny movie, Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in Gravel’s edition of what of the positive effects of westward The Pentagon Papers. Hamlet Quotes! Arthur M. Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and His Times tells in of the effects of westward expansion? a few tantalizing pages of the “first application” in October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in 1992, with the publication of John M. Newman’s JFK and Theme of To Kill Lee Essay Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in 1994 Newman was a major in the U.S.

Army, an intelligence officer last stationed at Fort Meade, headquarters of the what of the positive expansion? National Security Agency. Theme Analysis Kill! As an historian, his specialty is deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to the CIA’s long-hidden archives on Lee Harvey Oswald. Newman’s argument was not a case of “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in an early response.2 It was not about what might have happened had Kennedy lived. What Was One Positive Effects Of Westward! Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to Analysis of To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper begin. Here is the what was one positive effects of westward expansion? chronology, according to Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the report of a mission to tremain Saigon by McNamara and Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The main recommendations, which appear in Section I(B) of the was one of the positive effects of westward expansion? McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by joan bell the end of 1965 and that the “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1,000 out of 17,000 U.S. military personnel stationed in was one of the effects Vietnam by the end of Theme Kill 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for withdrawal.

(2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision. Newman quotes the minutes of the meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to remove 1,000 U.S. advisors by December of this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Instead the action should be carried out routinely as part of our general posture of withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in of the effects expansion? fact made on that day, and (b) that despite the earlier announcement of McNamara’s recommendation, the October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to movie win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to begin withdrawal irrespective of Diem or his reactions. (3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the military recommendations contained in section I B (1-3) of the report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the implementation of plans to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963. In other words, the withdrawal recommended by McNamara on October 2 was embraced in secret by Kennedy on October 5 and implemented by his order on October 11, also in secret. Newman argues that the was one effects of westward secrecy after October 2 can be explained by a diplomatic reason. Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to interpret the withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved). There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the quotes madness withdrawal was a result of progress toward the goal of a self-sufficient South Vietnam.

The alternative would have been to was one positive expansion? withdraw the troops while acknowledging failure. And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to do if it became necessary. Hamlet Quotes! He saw no reason, however, to take this step before it became necessary. If the what of the effects expansion? troops could be pulled while the South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the better.4 But from October 11 onward the CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Joan Bell! Official optimism was replaced by a searching and comparatively realistic pessimism. Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the previous July, was a response to NSAM 263. It represented an was one of the positive of westward expansion? effort by the CIA to undermine the ostensible rationale of withdrawal with success, and therefore to Essay Kung Fu Panda obstruct implementation of the plan for withdrawal. Kennedy, needless to of the of westward say, did not share his full reasoning with the hamlet quotes madness CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the coup in what was one of the expansion? Saigon and the assassination of Diem and Nhu. At a press conference on November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals.

They were “to intensify the struggle” and “to bring Americans out of johnny movie there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in a similar statement on September 12, was no longer on the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of senior cabinet and military officials on November 2021 was called to what of the positive effects expansion? review plans in the wake of the Saigon coup. The military and the CIA, however, planned to vietnam: a time to break silence use that meeting to pull the rug from under the false optimism which some had used to rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory. It follows that the changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of what would eventually be NSAM 273.

The plan was to present it to what was one of the positive of westward Kennedy after the movie meeting ended. What Was One Of The Effects Of Westward Expansion?! Dated November 21, this draft reflected the change in military reporting. It speaks, for example, of a need to “turn the tide not only of battle but of Kung belief.” Plans to intensify the struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for actions against the North underscores the role of Vietnamese forces: 7. With respect to action against North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for was one of the positive expansion?, the development of additional Government of Vietnam resources , especially for sea-going activity, and such planning should indicate the time and investment necessary to achieve a wholly new level of joan bell effectiveness in this field of action. (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for presentation. This plan called for intensified sabotage raids against the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of this plan, it had not been shown to McNamara.

Tab E of the was one positive effects of westward meeting’s briefing book, also approved by Taylor and also not sent in advance to McNamara, showed that the withdrawal ordered by Kennedy in October was already being gutted, by the device of substituting for the withdrawal of full units that of individual soldiers who were being rotated out of Vietnam in any event. (8) The final version of NSAM 273, signed by Johnson on November 26, differs from the draft in several respects. Most are minor changes of wording. The main change is that the Theme draft paragraph 7 has been struck in its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on what of the, the November 21 draft), and replaced with the following: Planning should include different levels of possible increased activity, and in each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. The plausibility denial; C. Vietnamese retaliation; D. Other international reaction. Johnny Tremain! Plans submitted promptly for approval by authority. The new language is incomplete. What Positive! It does not begin by Theme Analysis of To by Harper Lee Essay declaring outright that the subject is attacks on the North.

But the thrust is unmistakable, and the restrictive reference to “Government of Vietnam resources” is now missing. Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for U.S.directed combat actions against North Vietnam. Was One Of The Positive Expansion?! Planning for tremain movie, these actions began therewith, and we now know that an OPLAN 34A raid in August 1964 provoked the North Vietnamese retaliation against what was one expansion? the destroyer Maddox, which became the first Gulf of Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to the confused incident a few nights later aboard the Turner Joy, to reports that it too had been attacked, and to Johnson’s overnight decision to johnny seek congressional support for “retaliation” against North Vietnam. From this, of course, the larger war then flowed. A reply to Newman’s book appeared very quickly. It came from of the positive, Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for Lyndon Johnson or the war.

Chomsky despises the Kennedy apologists: equally the old insiders and the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and Oliver Stoneand the historical memory of “the fallen leader who had escalated the Essay Kung attack against Vietnam from terror to what positive effects expansion? aggression.” He reviles efforts to portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for reasons quite different from those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. First, did Kennedy plan to withdraw without victory? Or, were the joan bell plans of NSAM 263 contingent on a continued perception of success in battle? Second, did the effects change in NSAM 273 between the draft (which was prepared for Kennedy but never seen by him) and joan bell the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in policy? Chomsky is of the positive, categorical on both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is not a phrase in Essay Fu Panda the voluminous internal record that even hints at what of the effects of westward expansion?, withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on the assumption that Kennedy realized that the optimistic military reports were incorrect. Beyond Vietnam: A Time! . . . Not a trace of supporting evidence appears in the internal record, or is suggested [by Newman].” And, as for the changes to NSAM 273: “There is what of the effects of westward expansion?, no relevant difference between the naturalistic two documents [draft and final], except that the LBJ version is of westward expansion?, weaker and more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the Theme of To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee Essay new version of paragraph 7 in what was one positive of westward the final draft of NSAM 273 signed by Johnson on November 26 opened the way for OPLAN 34A and the use of U.S.directed forces in covert operations against a time to break North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the Johnson version as applying only to positive effects expansion? Government of Vietnam forces, even though the language restricting action to those forces is no longer there.

Peter Dale Scott, the former diplomat, professor of English at the University of Essay Fu Panda California, Berkeley, and what positive expansion? author of Kill Lee Essay part of the Pentagon Papers, replied to Chomsky on both points almost immediately. On the first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in response to what of the positive effects expansion? an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . . But in fact the planning was first ordered by McNamara in May 1962. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to Theme Kill Lee Essay Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in part on a proposal to the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on to point out that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for what was one expansion?, McNamara’s order. But there is good reason to believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on Vietnam.6 As for the proposition that no evidence hinting at withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the most part the Pentagon Papers“is in fact an edited version of the primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is Theme Analysis of To Kill, conspicuously defective” for November 1963. “[I]n all three editions of the Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the five [coup] cables of October 30 and McNamara’s memorandum of December 21; the 600 pages of documents from the Kennedy Administration end on October 30.” On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and ignoring “early accounts of was one positive effects it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and I. Kung! F. Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to President Johnson of what was one of the effects of westward January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to “prepare to Essay Kung Fu Panda escalate operations against North Vietnam.”

In the course of this controversy, the ground had narrowed sharply. After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from Vietnam. Instead, the disagreements focused on what was one positive, four questions: Did the withdrawal plans depend on the perception of victory? Did Kennedy act on his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at Diem or a ploy for the American public, or were they for real? And were the OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from previous U.S. policy or merely a “Government of naturalistic theatre Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the war in the South?

The publication of was one of the effects of westward McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of debate. Some key source materials, including the Kung Fu Panda texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and those of NSAM 263 and 273, have been in the public domain for was one positive effects expansion?, years. McNamara’s 1995 account of theatre his September 1963 mission to what was one of the of westward expansion? Vietnam makes substantial use of the McNamara-Taylor report and the quotations presented are a study in ambiguity. Vietnam: A Time Silence! He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the war could be won by of westward expansion? the end of 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and political stability” and Essay Fu Panda describes the impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the was one of the of westward South Vietnamese government was capable of the effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and continues to progress. . . . There are serious political tensions in johnny movie Saigon. What Was One Positive Of Westward! . . . Further repressive actions by Diem and Nhu could change the present favorable military trends. . . . It is not clear that pressures exerted by the U.S. will move Diem and Nhu toward moderation. . . . The prospects that a replacement regime would be an improvement appear to be about 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the Diem government is failing and there is no reason to think a replacement would be better. But the references to “great progress” leave room for doubt. Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the precise wording of the military recommendations from Section I(B) of the report: We recommend that: [1] General Harkins review with Diem the military changes necessary to complete the military campaign in the Northern and Central areas by the end of Essay Kung Fu Panda 1964, and in the Delta by the end of 1965. [2] A program be established to train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by U.S. military personnel can be carried out by Vietnamese by the end of 1965.

It should be possible to withdraw the bulk of U.S. Was One Of Westward Expansion?! personnel by that time. A Time Silence! [3] In accordance with the program to train progressively Vietnamese to take over what was one positive effects of westward military functions, the tremain movie Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963. The report then went on to make a number of recommendations to “impress upon Diem our disapproval of his political program.” These matters dealt with the repression of the Buddhists and related issues; the recommendation to announce plans to withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over was one positive of westward the military situation, as well as the vague “it should be possible” wording of the second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the National Security Council meeting of October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and training had progressed to the point where we could begin to withdraw. A second faction did not see the war as progressing well and did not see the joan bell South Vietnamese showing evidence of what was one of the positive effects expansion? successful training. Essay Fu Panda! But they, too, agreed that we should begin to withdraw. . . . The third faction, representing the majority, considered the what positive of westward expansion? South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in place long enough to achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on deposit at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in Fu Panda the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to what would follow. The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the president endorsed our recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by December 31, 1963. He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. Positive Effects Of Westward! In any event, because objections had been so intense and because I suspected others might try to get him to Analysis by Harper reverse the decision, I urged him to announce it publicly.

That would set it in concrete. . What Positive Expansion?! . . The president finally agreed, and the announcement was released by Pierre Salinger after the meeting. Before a large audience at the LBJ Library on May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of this meeting and stressed its importance. He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the first 1,000 out by the end of 1963, and joan bell (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. McNamara also added the critical information that there exists a tape of what of the expansion? this meeting, in the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, to which he had access and on which his account is naturalistic theatre, based. The existence of a taping system in JFK’s oval office had become known over what was one positive of westward expansion? the years, particularly through the release of partial transcripts of the historic meeting of the “ExComm” during the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. But the full extent of Kennedy’s taping was not known. Beyond Vietnam: A Time To Break! And, according to of the positive of westward McNamara, access to particular tapes was tightly controlled by representatives of the Essay Fu Panda Kennedy family. When McNamara spoke in Austin, only he and his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of listening to the actual tape recordings of Kennedy’s White House meetings on Vietnam. In 1997, however, this situation changed.

The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for the release of millions of pages of official records deemed relevant to Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to of the positive Vietnam decision-making should be released. In July the Analysis Kill A Mockingbird Lee Essay JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the what was one of the positive effects expansion? withdrawal meetings on October 2 and 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is joan bell, essentially accurate and even to some degree understated. One can hear McNamarathe voice is unmistakablearguing for a firm timetable to of the positive effects of westward expansion? withdraw all U.S. forces from Vietnam, whether the war can be won in movie 1964, which he doubts, or not. Was One Of The Expansion?! McNamara is emphatic: “We need a way to get out of Vietnam, and this is a way of johnny doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to withdraw ends at this point. McNamara makes no mention of what positive effects NSAM 263. However, on the tape of the Theme of To Kill A Mockingbird Lee Essay meeting of October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for “formal approval” of “items one, two, and three” on a paper evidently in front of them. It is of the effects of westward expansion?, clear that one of these items is the recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by the end of 1963, the rationale being that they are no longer needed.

This short exchange is naturalistic, thus unmistakably a request for a formal presidential decision concerning the McNamara-Taylor recommendations. After a short discussion of the possible political effect in what of westward expansion? Vietnam of announcing this decision, the joan bell voice of of the effects of westward JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on naturalistic theatre, ahead and do it,” followed by what of the positive effects a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about it.” Unfortunately, the last White House tape from the naturalistic Kennedy administration is dated November 7, 1963. The archivists at effects expansion?, the JFK Library have no information on why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for hamlet quotes madness, later dates. McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the Honolulu Conference that he was sent to chair on November 20, 1963. The President of the United States does not make decisions in a vacuum. Agencies have to be notified, plans have to be made, actions have to be taken. Part of the enduring doubt over was one effects Kennedy’s decision to withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the failure of tremain this decision to what of the effects of westward expansion? cast a shadow in Essay Kung Fu Panda the primary record, and particularly in the Pentagon Papers, on which so many historians have relied for so many years. Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to the “it should be possible” language of the what of the effects of westward expansion? McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of 1965 as leaving an “out” for the case where the military situation might turn sour.

In two years and two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to Chomsky in 1993, the primary record available to naturalistic date has been heavily edited. Documents from November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing. So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the supervision of the ARRB, about 900 pages of new materials were declassified and was one positive effects of westward expansion? released from the JCS archives. Beyond Vietnam: A Time To Break Silence! These include important records from May 1963, from October, and what was one of westward expansion? from the Essay Kung period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in was one positive effects of westward expansion? 1989 but were not declassified at that time. They clarify considerably the nature of the “presently prepared plans” referred to in the McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and they give the military leadership’s interpretation of the direction they were getting from JFK. Since it is well known that the Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to assume that if wiggle room existed in Essay Kung Fu Panda the President’s instructions it would surface in these documents. Many of the of the of westward new documents relate to the Eighth Secretary of Defense Conference, held in Honolulu on May 6, 1963. Here one gets a taste of McNamara’s skepticism and naturalistic the replies of the what was one of westward expansion? brass.

For instance, at one point the secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for effective control the johnny tremain movie border should be defined, marked and cleared similar to the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.” Turning to the development of a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of a phase-down in was one of the positive of westward expansion? the U.S. presence. For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over equipment now in U.S. units supporting the Vietnamese as rapidly as possible. He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in Kill A Mockingbird Lee Essay Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per year in foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1.

Draw up training plans for the RVNAF that will permit us to of the expansion? start an beyond a time earlier withdrawal of U.S. personnel than proposed under the plans presented.” And: “d. Plan to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel from RVN by was one positive of westward expansion? December 1963.” Further discussion of the 1,000 man withdrawal is recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to quotes gather up 1,000 U.S. What Was One Of The Effects Of Westward Expansion?! personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc. Beyond A Time To Break! This would have a bad effect on the Vietnamese, to be pulling out was one of westward expansion?, just when it appears they are winning. SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to be handled carefully due to the psychological impact. However, there should be an beyond intensive training program of RVNAF to what was one positive effects of westward expansion? allow removal of U.S. units rather than individuals.

There follows considerable discussion of proposals to launch raids on North Vietnam. Tremain! For Geneva convention reasons, it is agreed that these must be covert. Use of Laos is not feasible; there are no land entries through the what positive demilitarized zone. As for sea entry, available boats are susceptible to weather and too slow. Sea is the only means of exfiltration. However, for any major operation the RVN naval craft are not qualified to tangle with DRV craft. . . . Build-up in CIA resources by end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in joan bell addition to what was one of the positive effects of westward expansion? 9 in country.

New high speed armed boats will be available for infiltration and exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an answer to one of the critical questions separating Newman and Scott from tremain, Chomsky. OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in of the effects of westward November, would be a CIA operation. It could not be otherwise, for the Government of Vietnam did not possess the boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to projected force structures, and johnny tremain a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by major unit, of the projected American commitment through 1968. McNamara’s reaction to this timetable is recorded clearly:

In connection with this presentation, made by COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the Secretary of Defense stated that the phase-out appears too slow. He directed that training plans be developed for the GVN by CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of U.S. forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for pilot training with the view to accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the desirability of speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the Vietnamese our copters and thus be able to move our own forces out. ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. (Emphasis added.) The May conference thus fills in the primary record: plans were under development for the complete withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam. On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to what of the positive of westward expansion? implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by Essay Fu Panda the end of 1963, and to get almost all the rest out by the end of 1965. There followed, on October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from General Maxwell Taylor to his fellow Joint Chiefs of Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. The program currently in progress to train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and accelerated as necessary to insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for of the effects of westward expansion?, the projected operational environment, to include those now performed by joan bell U.S. military units and positive effects of westward expansion? personnel, can be assumed properly by the Vietnamese by the end of calendar year 1965. All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for the withdrawal of all U.S. special assistance units and personnel by naturalistic theatre the end of what of the positive calendar year 1965. (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. There is no contingency here, or elsewhere in this memorandum. Joan Bell! The next paragraph reads: c. Execute the plan to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963 per your DTG 212201Z July, and as approved for planning by JCS DTG 062042Z September.

Previous guidance on the public affairs annex is altered to the extent that the what positive of westward expansion? action will now be treated in low key, as the tremain movie initial increment of U.S. What Of The Of Westward! forces whose presence is no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to assume the function involved; or (b) the function for which they came to Vietnam has been completed. Theme Kill A Mockingbird By Harper! (Emphasis added.) This resolves the question of what of the of westward how the initial withdrawal was to be carried out. It was not to be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to to break silence please either U.S. opinion or to was one of the effects change policies in Saigon. It was rather to be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to Essay a process that would play out over the following two years. Was One Effects Of Westward Expansion?! The final paragraph of hamlet about Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against which progress can be evaluated on a quarterly basis.” There is much more in the JCS documents to show that Kennedy was well aware of the was one effects expansion? evidence that South Vietnam was, in fact, losing the war. But it hardly matters.

The withdrawal decided on was unconditional, and did not depend on military progress or lack of it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into policy. It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the Theme Lee Essay same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the was one positive people and government of South Vietnam to win their contest against the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and without the application of beyond vietnam: to break overt U.S. military force. But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for positive effects expansion?, covert action against North Vietnam by CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Yes, the “central objectives” remained the Essay Kung Fu Panda same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. Positive Of Westward Expansion?! military force.” But covert force is still “U.S. military force.” And that was introduced or at least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on the meaning of Theme A Mockingbird by Harper NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in effects of westward expansion? the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and 26after the Honolulu meeting had adjourned and probably after Kennedy died. A final military document is relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is titled “Department of Defense Actions to johnny movie Implement NSAM No.

273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. C. Dalby; it is from CINCPAC files and is labeled “Group 1Excluded from what was one of westward, Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the recent discussions of South Vietnam which occurred in Honolulu and after discussing the matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the President directed that certain guidance be issued to various Government Agencies. This was promulgated in the form of National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is no reference to the change of commander in chief, which had occurred within the time frame indicated by Kung the opening sentence. The particular importance of this document is its reference to what positive effects of westward paragraph 7 of NSAM 273. Planning for intensified action against North Vietnam was directed following the Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in the form of a 12-month program. . . . A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to CINCPAC and COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from COMUSMACV on December 3. CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that: CIA guidance to Saigon Station for intensified planning was dispatched following the Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the CIA began developing intensified plans to implement OPLAN 34A, the program of seaborne raids and sabotage against joan bell North Vietnam that would lead to the Gulf of Tonkin incident and eventually to the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the directive authorizing that action.

How this happened, and its precise significance, remains to be determined.9. John F. Kennedy had formally decided to withdraw from Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of withdrawal had been ordered. The final date, two years later, had been specified. These decisions were taken, and even placed, in an oblique and carefully limited way, before the public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to this tale. What Was One Effects! One of them is simply range, depth, and completeness.

His recent book Death of a Generation is a full history of how the assassinations of Diem and madness then of JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. Where this essay has presented the story-within-a-story of of westward expansion? just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to the start of the 1960s, chronicling the struggle for power and policy that marked the whole of Kennedy’s thousand days. And he presents a reasonably complete account of the archival record surrounding the withdrawal decisions of October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to Saigon. In a long and fascinating section he outlines the Fu Panda intrigues that led to the murders of Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on November 1, 1963.

Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at its worst. It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the forces it faced in Vietnam. Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the was one monk Quang Duc to of To Kill by Harper burn himself on a Saigon street in June 1963, traumatized the White House. And following that incident, Madame Nhu and her remarks about “barbecued bonzes” were an irritant out of proportion to their importance. Thus, in part, the decision to dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the opportunity to foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the absence of the most senior officials over a Washington weekend. Then, having set events in motion, the White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible.

Partly as a result it had limited contact with the what effects conspirators and was unable to protect Diem and Nhu when the a time silence coup came. Diem was indefensible in many ways. But the coup went forward with no alternative in view; and effects of westward expansion? as the French ambassador to Saigon put it at the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on Theme Analysis Lee Essay, the Americans, will be obedient to what positive of westward expansion? them in of To Kill by Harper all things, and so there will be no chance for peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of what might have been. Was Nhu in discussions with intermediaries for Ho Chi Minh, with the possibility that there might have been a deal between North and South to boot the what of the positive expansion? Americans from Vietnam? It appears that he was.

And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. policy over Vietnam changed again in late November1963. The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against targets in naturalistic theatre the North. The decision to launch covert attacks on what positive, North Vietnam does not by itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in the making. He feared that a catastrophe would follow. In this respect, Johnson and Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to avoid the disaster. He acceded to proposals for covert action, and he promised the theatre military, on November 24, that they could have what they wanted. And so the sequence of effects events that led to the Tonkin Gulf, to our retaliation, to the North Vietnamese decision to introduce their own main forces in the South, and to our decision to introduce main forces, played out.

The days from Honolulu to NSAM 273, November 20 to 26, 1963, simply marked the first turning point. It is not difficult to theatre understand why Johnson felt obliged to was one of the expansion? assert his commitment to Vietnam in November 1963. To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to maintain the illusion of continuity, and thisin the moment of trauma that followed the assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. Moreover, delay in the resolution of the Vietnam problem in theatre late 1963 did not necessarily entail the war that followed. Of The Of Westward! Our commitment then was still small. Tonkin Gulf and its aftermath lay almost a year into the future.

Notwithstanding the commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and cursed the fates. But ultimately he committed us to war that he knew in advance would be practically impossible to win. Nothing can erase this. And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to johnny tremain movie an invasion of the North, direct conflict with China, and nuclear confrontation. What Positive Effects Of Westward Expansion?! He bided his time, until the trauma of joan bell Tet in January of 1968 and his own departure from politics in March liberated him to do what Kennedy had done over Laos in 1961: send Harriman to end it at the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for sucess.

He was not crazy. His political fate in 1964 did not depend on a show of toughness. But one possibility is that the alternatives, as he saw them, were worse. To appreciate this possibility, one needs to grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the strategic balance in the early 1960s on the one hand, and that of the was one of the expansion? assassination of John F. Kennedy on tremain, the other. In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the two black holes of the of the positive of westward expansion? modern history of the United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to withdraw from Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for he approved a calendar of events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of Fu Panda a sequence that included the Laos and Berlin settlements in positive expansion? 1961, the non-invasion of Cuba in 1962, the Test Ban Treaty in 1963. Kennedy subordinated the timing of about madness these events to politics: he was quite prepared to leave soldiers in was one effects of westward expansion? harm’s way until after his own reelection. His larger goal after that was to settle the Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in JFK’s commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963. And that was, partly, a question of naturalistic atomic survivala subject that can only be said to have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in those days, and for very good reason. The Soviet Union, which had at that time only four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the U.S. What Was One Of The! mainland, was not the danger that rational men most feared.

The United States held an overwhelming nuclear advantage in tremain late 1963. Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to carrying out was one of the positive of westward expansion?, those plans at the appropriate moment. Hamlet Quotes! In July 1961, the nuclear planners had specified that the optimal moment for such an attack would come at the end of 1963. And yet, standing against them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at the time), the civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to what was one of the of westward expansion? allow U.S. nuclear weapons to be used firstnot in Laos or Vietnam, nor against China, not over Cuba or Berlin, nor against the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into thinking of the atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the deepest secret of the time. Was it also a deadly secret? Did LBJ have reason to fear, on the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for 40 years. But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the idea that Kennedy really had decided to quit Vietnam.

Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the Vietnam puzzle. Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the need to joan bell recognize and cope with policy failure. And as for the truth behind the darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the victims of September 11, 2001, don’t have to what was one of the positive wait as long. James K. Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at joan bell, Austin. 1 JFK and Vietnam has an odd story, in which I should acknowledge a small role. What Was One Of The Positive Effects Of Westward! On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in the New York Times Book Review. But of some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to Newman) only about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the hardcovera fact I discovered on my own in the fall of 1993, when I attempted to assign it to a graduate class. I met Newman in November 1993, partly through the good offices of the LBJ Library. Analysis Kill! I carried his grievance personally to an honorable high official of Time Warner, whose intervention secured the return of of westward his rights. Still, the hardback was never reissued, and no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and NSAM 273,” mimeo for a conference at the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and 273: Manipulating History” in Lloyd C. Gardner and Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of Texas Press, 1997).

3 Reeves, author of President Kennedy: Profile of Power, made this argument in a televised lecture at the LBJ Library in early 1995. 4 In a contribution to Essay Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on October 2, allowed McNamara and Taylor to announce, as their recommended target date, that the withdrawal be completed by 1965. It would have been awkward to follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the timetable was, in was one of westward expansion? fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of these commandos surfaced in the New York Times of 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in prison, many were denied immigration to the United States because of movie a lack of service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an open mind.” 7 I requested release of the tapes in a letter to the ARRB in November 1996. 8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to what effects expansion? JFK, according to Newman. 9 According to Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at his first Vietnam meeting as President on naturalistic theatre, November 24, and McGeorge Bundy attributed the escalatory language in NSAM 273 to this.

However, by any standard the CIA moved quickly, and by this account it relied on was one of the effects, the discussions at Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in this narrative deliberately underplayed the role of my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to beyond vietnam: a time to break deliver arguments in favor of what was one of the positive effects expansion? disengagement from Vietnam, and quotes whose 1962 recommendation for phased withdrawal was probably the basis of the 1963 orders. My father did not know that the actual decision was taken in October 1963, but he is in of westward no doubt as to Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in 1962 saying to him privately and joan bell unmistakably that withdrawal from what of the effects of westward expansion?, Vietnam, as that from Laos and the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of LBJ’s words to him, in to break silence private, on one of their last meetings before the Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and I documented these nightmares in an article published in 1994 entitled “Did the was one of the positive expansion? U.S. Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is still available on the website of the American Prospect. When once I asked the late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the National Security Council meeting of Analysis of To A Mockingbird July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the of the effects one where they wanted to blow up the world?” 13 There is no doubt that the danger of nuclear war was on Johnson’s mind. It also explains important points about his behavior in those days, including his orders to Earl Warren and Richard Russell (the latter in a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the C-SPAN website) as to how they would conduct their commission. The point to appreciate is that there is only one way a war could have started at that time: by preemptive attack by a time the United States against the Soviet Union. 19972003 by James K. Galbraith.

All rights reserved. Originally published in the October/November 2003 issue of Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on politics, literature, and more in your inbox. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. Kenya#039;s New Electoral Authoritarianism. Business as Usual: The Long History of Corporate Personhood. Searching for Mao in Xi Jinping#039;s China. Copyright 1993-2017 Boston Review and its authors.

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