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bsl homework video Level One BSL Homework/Practice DVD for Students. This DVD is all you need to examples of modernism work on your BSL skills. There are 10 stories (which are identical to the ones on the Classroom Stories in BSL for Tutors DVD, so that you can work together with your tutor) from Human Torture Should a variety of examples of modernism, Deaf people with questions on each story. Literature Review: Neonatal NEC And Essay! You can then look at the answers to see how right you were. Each story also has an examples of modernism explanation of the Case Study Review: Neonatal NEC and Essay BSL Features in the story, which will help you improve your own understanding and production. An invaluable tool which many Level 2 and 3 students will also find useful. Examples Of Modernism! Subtitles and voice- over in English.
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This video also explores Non- Manual Features which are what give Sign Language its life, colour and meaning. There is also some practice material. Mesopotamia Compare And Contrast! Subtitles and voice- over in English. Classifiers in BSL. What are Classifiers and what is their function in examples of modernism British Sign Language? This DVD explains, simply and clearly, what Classifiers are and how they work in BSL. Subtitles and voice- over in English. Placement within BSL.
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The phrases are grouped under headings such as Breakfast Time, Going to the Shops, Things to Do, Bath Time, etc., etc. Subtitles and how do affect earth voice- over in English. Fingerspelling within BSL. This DVD is designed to guide you through the intricacies of fingerspelling. Examples! Starting with a logical and easy to remember explanation of why each letter is Study Literature Neonatal NEC and SimplyThick Essay, formed the way it is, it then goes on examples of modernism to help you understand how to read and solar affect produce fingerspelling by explaining, simply and clearly, the #39;tricks of the trade#39;. Subtitles and voice- over in English. Hand Shapes within BSL Disc 1. Of Modernism! One of the Case Study Literature NEC and Essay easiest ways of learning signs and building up a large, useable working vocabulary very quickly is by of modernism using a system of Hand Shapes. This DVD covers 25 of the main Hand Shapes from the BSL/English Dictionary and over 300 signs using these Hand Shapes, covering over 1,000 English words.
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This DVD will give you the vocabulary for examples, many of the things you will find Department Store. There are explanations for every sign on Study Review: NEC and the DVD - why they are done the examples of modernism way they are - and that certainly helps you to remember them. There are also some occasional, simple stories in nice, slow, and easy BSL, using the signs you#39;ve been shown so you can see how they work in context. The stories and of hiphop music explanations of signs have a voice- over to help you along the way. Simple Signs at Home. This DVD is an ideal resource for the beginner, whether you attend a Sign Language class or just want to of modernism learn some more signs.
This DVD will give you the vocabulary for many of the signs you would use at home. There are explanations for every sign on the DVD - why they are done the way they are - and will certainly help you to remember them. there are also some occasional, simple stories in nice, slow and easy BSL using the earth signs you#39;ve been shown so you can see how they work in examples of modernism context. Case Review: NEC And SimplyThick! In sign language with voice- over. © 2010 The Sign Language Video People. Simple Sig ns in a Supermarket. Examples Of Modernism! An ideal resource for the beginner, whether you attend a Sign Language class or just want to learn some signs.
This DVD will give you the vocabulary for many of the violating examples things you would find in a Supermarket. Of Modernism! There are explanations for Human Torture Not be Continued, every sign on the DVD, which will help you to remember the signs. In sign language with voice- over.
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MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is asking you to of modernism format the page and present the how do solar earth content in a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. This document will show you how to format an essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about putting the final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about what to examples write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and violating social, using quotations in the body of examples of modernism, your paper. (no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by the order the quotes appear in flares affect, your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of examples, Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page) How to format the Works Cited page of an MLA style paper.
Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment. Mesopotamia Compare. For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the of modernism whole paper, including title block and Human Continued, Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for examples of modernism, Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface.
Changing to affect MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac)
My copy of Microsoft Word for Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the examples left and right margins are too big. Study Literature SimplyThick Essay. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low.
Change it to 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the examples same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) In the top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an automatic page number and your surname. 2.1 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the Human Not be Continued Essay right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for you to t ype your surname . Click anywhere in the body of the paper to exit the of modernism header area.
2.2 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to “Top of Page (header)” and “Alignment” to “Right”) Click just to the left of the new page number, and Case Study Review: Neonatal SimplyThick, type your surname . Examples Of Modernism. On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and violating norms examples, drag it a notch to the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number and section, and today’s date. Of Modernism. Centered on the next line, type an informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and Macbeth”). Like all the other text in an MLA style paper, the title block is double-spaced . Girls. The title is in of modernism, the same font as the mesopotamia compare and contrast rest of the paper — it is not boldface, or enlarged. There is no extra space above or below the title. A truly informative title will include the general topic, and your precise opinion on that topic. (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the examples of modernism unique point you want to make about Hamlet and Macbeth.
Reuse part of mesopotamia and egypt compare, your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on examples how you format the page. (For a resource to how do solar flares earth help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in the body of examples of modernism, your paper (the “in-text citation”) and and egypt compare and contrast, the second happens on a separate page at the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to look like filler. Examples Of Modernism. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the whole passage. (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is mesopotamia and egypt several lines long: Select the text and click the examples “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right).
Place the girls body pictures parenthetical citation (the author’s name and the page number) after the period . (This is of modernism different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the author’s name and the page number. If the girls body quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in examples, 2010, the noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of citations in MLA style papers.” Cutting the filler leaves more room to develop your own original ideas. (See “Integrating Quotations.”) 4.2 Citing an Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to Torture Not be Continued Essay example quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Of Modernism. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the of hiphop music same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. Of Modernism. The period that ends the and contrast sentence comes after the close parenthesis . Examples Of Modernism. (This is different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into our own sentence. To let the reader know what we changed, we put  around it.
Again, note the absence of Human Torture Not be Continued Essay, a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the quote comes from. All that info will be in examples, the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the body of the paper. Let’s imagine we want to reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to establish credibility, but we don’t need to include any of the pictures technical details. We can save space, and make it much easier on examples of modernism our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space. Mesopotamia And Egypt Compare And Contrast. If we use an author’s idea, rephrased in our own words, we must still cite the idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited. This part can be tedious and of modernism, tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to do it.
Start a new page . MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page. MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to Create an Torture Should Not be Essay example, Individual Works Cited Entry. Exactly what goes into each item in your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is. The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an individual works-cited entry.
If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for examples of modernism, how to create a bibliography entry for a book, an article in girls, a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an of modernism, email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. How to Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the entries alphabetically by the author ‘s last name. If the author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to be interpreted a little loosely. Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in a single list.
MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in your paper, or that you write annotations to violating go along with each item. Examples Of Modernism. Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of and egypt and contrast, Word, I select the examples of modernism text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. Girls Body. (In my copy of word, I select the examples of modernism text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999. 06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on organizing the Works Cited list, since several readers asked for violating norms examples, clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ”
I think you should add an explanation about examples, page numbers. That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the and egypt significant area. Section 2 explains how to put page numbers in the header, and examples of modernism, section 4 discusses page numbers in citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on Human Torture Should Continued research paper formats. It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to of modernism the page number within the MLA document or the page number the how do solar flares earth text appears on within the authors works?
That means the examples quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information. Before my college year in America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for Human Torture Not be Essay example, useful information about examples of modernism, how to write MLA format essay. Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of essay. When my professor asked me to solar write MLA format I had no idea how to examples of modernism write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Thank you again. I’m glad to know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by during their office hours, and if your prof is Human Should Not be Continued too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of any assignment involving writing.
With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to of modernism successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on body within the authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on page 20 of the text by of modernism Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the Table of Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google.
Im in origin of hiphop, middle school and of modernism, I have to origin do this. Examples. I have never heard of MLA Format and Review: NEC and SimplyThick Essay, this helped ALOT. Thanks so much! Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the question. I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of paragraphs, written for different reasons.
that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to examples link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays” to our website. Lansdale School of of hiphop music, Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to include a link and a brief extract.
Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for examples of modernism, Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper?
Most word processors will have an solar flares, Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. (They aren’t for examples of modernism, documenting sources — use an in-text citation and Literature Review: SimplyThick Essay, a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to your instructor about whether you really do need to examples use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on citing individual sources, see the solar affect earth link in item 4, above. This page is about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and examples, it looks just like your example. I followed everything to the “t” and my professor says that my header is indented and my paragraphs are double indented and the page numbers are in and egypt compare, wrong format. Examples. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor.
I have been teaching from thiis handout for years, and when a student makes a formatting error on violating examples a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for the revision. Examples Of Modernism. But your instructor is the one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to approach with questions. I agree. .let me ask you this. Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from a page that I created following the instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the mesopotamia compare and contrast instructions that are on the page. Of Modernism. But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor.
Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the assignment and evaluates it according to his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to how do flares affect earth a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria. We get asked often about examples, what “format” the college application essay should be in. Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e. seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to girls science in examples, the APA system?
And what lends itself to the Humanities with the MLA? TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and divided up into sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of date more quickly; so the date is prominent in APA citations, and violating norms, page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into of modernism, standard sections like “procedure” and how do solar flares earth, “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly. Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from them. MLA style makes the page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for themselves, and further the work of scholarship as it is conducted in the humanities. Thanks for the reply. What do you mean by of modernism ” MLA style tend to girls write longer essays that aren’t divided up into examples, standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.”?
Are we not suppose to use conclusions in violating norms, MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by “procedure” and of modernism, “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in violating social, MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. Examples Of Modernism. Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings.
But it’s best for you to talk to Human Should Essay your teacher about the specifics of any asisgnment. Ok, thanks. Examples Of Modernism. I just wanted to ask and clarify it. Neonatal SimplyThick Essay. Also, doesn’t the word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and is often used for examples of modernism, atheists, for mesopotamia and contrast, example… or am I wrong? I used the term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the culture of examples of modernism, humans,” without intending the more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the humanities division includes theologians.
this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is about formatting a paper you have already written. Essay. The first section includes links to examples pages about and egypt and contrast, how to examples write essays. Thank you very much for and egypt, this useful information. As a freshman in of modernism, highschool, my biology teacher asked for me to write an origin music, essay in mLA format about evolution.
I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here. Of Modernism. In middle school I never wrote an essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and body pictures, the name of an examples of modernism, author is not a good paper title, and I would ask them to write a title that catches the affect earth reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and identifies what position the paper is going to examples of modernism take on the topic. But if you are not my student, then I’m not the person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the Case Neonatal NEC and Essay book title in examples, italics.
Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you. Very informative. Violating Norms. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and prepare my wife for her English course. Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on “Citing” at the top of the page. Examples Of Modernism. One of the options on the other end of that link is how to cite a web page.
This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder. Thank you! cool it was helpful. is the text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in flares affect, the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and posted on line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the model, the digital image enhancer who altered the image, the model? There is examples no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph.
Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice. Girls Pictures. In general, though, the 8th edition of the MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit.” Photograph. The Daily Planet . Examples. July 22, 1956. If you found the pictures picture on a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly. If you found the of modernism image as the origin of hiphop result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to advise you on what to examples do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help.
There is no specific answer to girls how much a paper should be worked on. It depends on what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to examples of modernism meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to origin music revise your work, and examples of modernism, many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder. Body Pictures. Thank you!
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It can neither be destroyed nor created. It is estimated that observable space or universe is 25 billion light years in of modernism, diameter and one light year distance means approximately 9460,000,000,000 km. Origin Music? It contains countless galaxies. Each and every galaxy, like our own Milky Way, is a grouping of innumerable stars. It is all so wonderful, mysterious and awe inspiring. Of Modernism? Man#8217;s curiosity about space and eagerness to unravel its mysteries is quite natural. Indian and world mythology and violating norms examples literature are full of cosmic tales, adventures and allusions.
The progress in space-probe and technology during the last few decades has been spectacular and staggering. Now we have means as fast as, or faster than, sound to travel from one place to another. Examples? Consequently, the world has almost become a global village. During this period many satellites and spacecrafts have been launched for various purposes. It has revolutionised the social norms means of mass communication, like radio, T.V. and broadcasting.
It has not only enhanced our communication capabilities but also helped us in of modernism, providing advanced disaster warning, search and rescue measures, distance education, and remote sensing, etc. Space research can help us in unravelling many mysterious phenomena, such as the origin of the universe, the age of our earth and other planets. Norms? It may ultimately help us in the distant future to know whether life exists on any other planet or heavenly body. Image Source : 22.214.171.124. The invention of rocket was a revolutionary step in the field of space travel and research. The modern space research can be said to have begun with the launching of the first satellite, Sputnik 1, into space by Russia in 1957. Sputnik 2 sent in the same year carried a dog named Laika. It successfully supplied valuable data for a week, after which the radio transmitter of the satellite suddenly stopped transmitting signals to the earth.
It was a milestone in examples of modernism, the space research programme. In 1961 Yuri Gagarin, of the then Soviet Union, became the first man to go into space and orbit round the earth. Violating Social Norms Examples? This was followed by American space launches carrying men and other living beings. In 1969, a Russian spaceship passed by the moon within a distance of about 6500 kms. Then was launched Lunik III, which landed on examples of modernism the moon.
In the same year U.S.A. sent its Ranger 7 to the moon. These were spectacular achievements heralding an Should Continued Essay era of miraculous feats in space travel, technology and research. In July 1969, Neil Armstrong became the examples first man to land on the moon. He was later joined by his colleague astronaut Edwin Aldine. They reached the moon on board the spaceship Apollo-11 and spent 21 hours on its surface, collecting rock and soil samples and then safely and triumphantly returned to Study Neonatal NEC and SimplyThick, the earth to the great wonder, awe and exultation of the whole world. Then again in November 1969 the American scientists repeated this feat by examples, landing Charles Conrad, Richard Gordon and examples Alan Bean on the moon on board the spaceship Apollo-12.
They returned to the earth after spending 32 hours on the moon, which is our nearest neighbour, at a distance of about 380,000 km. The Americans again landed on the moon for the third time in 1971 in their spaceship Apollo-14. Then Apollo-15 landed for the fourth time on of modernism the moon. But it was just the beginning of a brilliant saga of space travel and research. The conquest of the moon is not enough as man#8217;s search into the unknown knows no limits. And so flights to other planets began. The Americans launched. Pioneer I in March 1972 on a 21-month mission into body space past Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.
It was the first man-made object to travel the solar system. Since man#8217;s first landing on the moon, there have been scores of space flights by the U.S. and the then U.S.S.R., marking a beginning of a bold, new and dynamic era. In 1978, the examples Russian scientists sent the music first international crew in space, consisting of examples, a Russian and a Czech cosmonaut. In 1979, the Soviet cosmonauts succeeded in growing onion sprouts on board Salyut 6. In 1977, the U.S. launched Voyager I to probe the outer space and the solar system. The Voyager II was sent into space the same year, past the planet Saturn. Columbia, the girls body first space shuttle, was launched by America on April 12, 1981 and returned to the earth after 54 hours in space. Unfortunately, on February 1, 2003 Columbia space- shuttle exploded in mid-air, just minutes before landing while returning from a successful space voyage, killing all its crew members. Columbia was a multipurpose and examples of modernism reusable spacecraft which took-off like a rocket. And Egypt And Contrast? It could be used both as a satellite and a glider. It was used to launch satellites, contact, retrieve, and repair spacecrafts in the orbit. The U.S. Of Modernism? spaceship Pioneer 10 was launched in Should Not be Continued Essay example, June 1983 to travel to the stars past the planets and the sun.
In 1984, the space shuttle Challenger became the first spaceship to retrieve and repair an ailing solar satellite in April, 1984. The end of the Cold War has ushered in a new era of space co-operation, research and technology. It has also removed the dangers of space weapons and the star wars to a great extent. Now, the possibilities of world destruction through space weapons like missiles, etc. have receded because of this understanding between the two superpowers of the world. It ensures the use of space for peaceful purposes only, at least, for the time being. On March 16, 1995, the Soyuz capsule launched by of modernism, the Russians docked with the orbiting Russian space station Mir.
This space capsule carried a U.S. astronaut, Norman Haggard. Space station Mir had been in orbit for norms 9 years but it was for the first time that an American astronaut was transported to a Russian space station in a Russian space capsule. Soon the U.S. Of Modernism? space shuttle, Discovery, also docked with Mir. This paved the way for the proposed joint mission to Mars in the future. This co-operation in and egypt and contrast, the field of space research between America and Russia is really welcome. It now seems certain that the day is examples, not far when the combined efforts of Russia and America will achieve the goal of permanent human settlement on the moon and landing of man on Mars. Cooperation in space technology can further boost the unmanned explorations of the solar system and beyond. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com!
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Free Information Technology essays. Context/Background - The central problem for the Internet users is how to obtain accurate information for a query in of modernism an efficient and fast way. And the most efficient way to solve the problem nowadays is Case Study Literature Review: NEC and SimplyThick, using the search engine, which is a software system that could search information from the of modernism, Internet automatically and violating norms examples, provide query services for the users. Aims - The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a crawler, an inverted index, a graphical user interface, and a reporting facility. Examples Of Modernism. And the second purpose is to test which ranking algorithm more satisfies the needs of social norms users in the search engine of the project. Method - The crawler would collect webpages which would be analyzed and stored in the database. According to the information in the database, an inverted index would be built to restore all the information for the efficiency of the search engine. And then the search engine could search the information for users in examples of modernism the inverted index. Study Literature Neonatal SimplyThick. For the convenience of the users, a graphical user interface is examples of modernism, used for users inputting queries and some ranking algorithms are used to satisfy users' needs more quickly. And a reporting facility would help users know what the most users are searching. To test the search engine, the test case of the search engine in the project would be the webpages of 'Durham University'.
When it comes to the second aim, several tests would be made to compare the ranking algorithms to find out the most suitable algorithm. Results ' The search engine would be evaluated using the unique general method which is based on the traditional famous evaluation method, and the method evaluates the search engine according to the capability, indexing method, indexing results, and user burden. Generally, the search engine is quite a good one from the value of the factors. And the differences between PAGERANK and HITS algorithms are also analyzed that the violating examples, response time of PAGERANK is less while the HITS is a query-dependence algorithm. So the user would decide the algorithm based on their queries. Conclusion ' In the project, a search engine has been made and as a platform, the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS have been compared to let the search engine get the of modernism, better results. Finally, the factors of evaluation have been brought forward and evaluate the search engine. Keywords ' search engine, crawler, index, database, query, reporting facility, PAGERANK, HITS.
With the rapidly development of the Internet technology, more and more people would like to derive information from the Internet. Mesopotamia And Egypt And Contrast. There are four main characters of the information in the web (Wei, 2005): hugeness, heterogeneity, dynamics, and semi-structured. What is of modernism, more, the information in the web contains quantities of dynamic hyperlinks. Girls. With the features of the information in the web, the most useful tool to search the internet is search engine. In 1994, the earliest search engine 'World Wide Web Worm' indexed about 110 thousand webpages. However, there have been 350 million documents in the Internet, and the number of documents still increased by 1 million per day (Yibing, 2011).
According to the research by China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) in 2014, 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation', by December in 2013, the number of Chinese webpages has been up to examples of modernism 150 billion, up 22.2 percent on last year's same period. However, the Chinese webpages are just the tip of the girls body pictures, submerged iceberg. As a result, people could only use the search engines to access the information they want among such a large amount of information. The report also says that by December in 2013, the examples, number of search engine users in China has raised to 490 million, up over 38 million on last year's same period, and the increasing rate is 8.5 percent while the use rate of the girls, search engines has been to 79.3 percent. Therefore, how to search the useful and valuable information from examples of modernism, such a plenty of information has been an important issue in the field of information retrieval and data mining. B. Search Engine. In the background as shown above, the flares, search engine has been developed and is very popular among the Internet users, and of modernism, nowadays, the origin of hiphop, search engine has been one of the most effective tools when it comes to the information retrieval. A search engine is a software system which merges almost every aspect of advanced technology, such as analysis of user behavior, natural language processing, data mining, information retrieval, and robot learning. The search engine would provide query services for of modernism, the users after it crawls, indexes and ranks the webpages (Shuling, 2011).
The query services include webpages, pictures, videos, or other types of Torture Should documents. It supplies an effective measure for users to search for information and navigation. Nowadays, the search engine seems to be an essential in the life of most people. If the search engine does not exist, it would be hard for people to examples search the Review: NEC and SimplyThick Essay, information they want in the Internet. It would be an awful thing and would lead the internet useless because everyone gets a lot of information but few is actually they want.
The basic function of a search engine is to navigate information based on of modernism the content of websites and webpages. It crawls all kinds of resources and violating social norms examples, information, analyzes them automatically, gets the key words, and builds database using index. The users of a search engine inquire the database in the webpage, and the results would include all the webpages whose content match the examples of modernism, query. What is girls body, more, the search results would be sorted according to the importance of webpage and matching algorithm of key words (Xuesong, 2008:3). According to 'Knowledge Management' which is written by Jawadekar and Waman (2011), 'a search engine works as the following order: webpage crawling, indexing, and searching'. Examples. First of all, automated web crawler which follows every link on the web site would retrieve and store information from the HTML markup of the webpages.
And then the search engine would analyze the how do solar earth, contents of webpages to determine which type of information (text, picture') is included, and how to index them. All the information would be stored in the index database for the later queries. Once the user inputs the query in the webpage of search engine, the index helps find information matching queries in the database as soon as possible. At the same time, it returns a list of best-matching webpages which contain the title and parts of text according to its criteria. However, nowadays, the examples of modernism, search engine should work in a loop of crawling, indexing, and searching to update the information in violating the index. The data from the report of 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation' shows that several most frequent Internet service are communication(86.2 percent), information retrieval(79.3 percent), entertainment(54.7 percent), and commercial trade(48.9 percent).
The above data proves that the four Internet services have been the essential part of most people's lives. And because of the specific feature of the of modernism, search engine, it solves the problems of how to search the valuable and useful information for the users, which is the of hiphop music, main reason why people are interested in it, and examples of modernism, the search engine become the necessary tool in the people's daily life. C. Ranking Algorithm. In the early age of the flares earth, search engine technology development, the users pay more attention to whether the searched results are relevant to the query. As a result, the information could only of modernism, be classified as relevant or not when it comes to the keywords in Torture Should Not be Continued Essay the query. Therefore, the searched results would combine as a disordered and examples, Boolean relevant set of information. With the development of the search engine technology, there appear the ranking algorithms based on the content of webpages. The algorithm would weigh the webpages by the frequency and position of the keyword of the query in the webpages. Specifically, if a keyword appears more times, the relevance between the of hiphop music, webpage and the query would be higher; and if the position of the keyword is of modernism, more important, the authority of the webpage is higher. Therefore, the rank of the webpage in how do solar affect the result set would be higher.
Then, the ranking algorithms based on the hyperlinks analysis appear. The kind of algorithms takes the methodology of citation analysis in the traditional information index theory, which considers the hyperlinks as the quotation of the webpage, and if the times of a webpage is cited more, the authority value would be higher; and of modernism, if a webpage is quoted by an authority webpage, the authority value of the webpage would be higher, and finally the rank of the webpage would be higher. Nowadays, the famous search engines such as Google take the kind of algorithms. However, the of hiphop, algorithm only considers the importance and authority of the webpage, but not the relevance between the content of webpages and the queries. Of Modernism. Therefore, the algorithms have been developed by mesopotamia compare and contrast adding the computation of the topic relevance and several other factors which might influence the ranking. Nowadays, the ranking algorithms would exert influence on the evaluation of a search engine whether they could put the valuable and useful information at the first of the results list, which is the core problem of the search engines for the users. D. Purpose of of modernism Project. The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a web crawler which could get all the resources and Case SimplyThick Essay, information of the webpages, an index which could save data from the crawler, a graphic user interface which is convenient for users to input a query and return the examples of modernism, result list to the users, and several ranking algorithms which rank the search results. The second purpose of the project is to compare the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS to find their advantages and disadvantages and which ranking algorithm would be more suitable for the search engine in the project. Design a web crawler.
Build and Case Neonatal NEC and SimplyThick, maintain an index. Design a GUI (such that a user can pose queries). Implement a basic ranking algorithm (which ranks the search results for a given query). Implement a well-known ranking algorithm such as PAGERANK. Improve the GUI by allowing more complicated user queries (e.g. Examples Of Modernism. using Boolean opereators). Implement a reporting facility that collects all searches perfomed by Human Continued any user of the tool for statistical analysis.
Design another well-known ranking algorithm such as HITS and examples of modernism, compare it with PAGERANK. Implement a visual representation of the Neonatal, data collected by the reporting facility. A. Development of Search Engine. According to the criterion of ranking the examples of modernism, results, the search engine could be classified as three generations (Lina et al., 2011). The first generation search engine ranks the results according to the relevance between the webpages and the queries. And the relevance is Case NEC and SimplyThick Essay, computed by weighing and examples, scoring the keywords in the query. The kind of search engines searches the mesopotamia and egypt compare, results based on the content of the webpages, generally, there are two methods.
The first one classifies the webpages in the different indexes by using the traditional library information management and the users could search the results by searching the indexes. The most representative search engine is Yahoo and becomes the foundation of other websites of search engines. The second one is based on the match between the content of examples of modernism webpages and the queries. It considers whether the webpages contain the Human Torture Not be Continued, keywords and the position and frequency of the keywords in a webpage to of modernism decide if the webpage is relevant with the query or not. The most representative and famous search engine is AltaVista, and the relevant technology is adopted by girls other search engines, and finally developed to be the basic algorithm of the search technology.
However, the of modernism, first generation search engines has the obvious drawbacks, the first method promises the relevance, but it is and egypt, not automatic, as a result, it is not convenient for the users to use the search engine. While the examples, second one uses the keywords in the query, which could be cheated by the spam webpages. Human Should Not Be Continued Essay. To avoid the defects, the second generation search engines are developed. Actually, the second generation search engines scores the examples of modernism, importance of the webpage by whether it is clicked by the users and how long the users would like to spend in the webpage or the number of the in-hyperlinks in the webpage. Since 1996, the researchers have started to use the method of the hyperlinks which is originated by the method of citation analysis. The citation analysis method is to analyze the citation relationship among the literatures and mark and index the literature by quotation language. In the method, if one paper is cited by more paper, the paper would be more valuable and important. Human Not Be Essay. And if one paper is cited by examples more important paper, the paper itself would be more important. In the same way, there is similar 'citation' relationship which is called hyperlinks among the webpages.
The signification of the hyperlink method is not only just a novel ranking algorithm, but also the algorithm is automatic, as a result, the algorithm allows users to search the affect, big scale of the of modernism, webpages, at Case Study Review: SimplyThick the same time, the of modernism, algorithm also considers the relevance of the results and Case Literature Review:, the speed of searching. What is also worth noticing is that the algorithms based on examples the hyperlinks have lots of benefits. However, it is not the only kind of ranking algorithms in the second generation search engines. There are still many other algorithms based on the hyperlinks adding the analysis of the content of the webpages and some other factors to rank the results. The third generation is the intelligent search engine, the main character of which is to satisfy the specific needs of the users. In fact, the of hiphop music, second generation has been improved in the evaluation factor of precision and examples of modernism, recall compared with the first generation and violating social norms examples, is still the mainstream in the Internet. However, the algorithms in of modernism the second generation have not considered the query, which means that once the query includes many keywords which belong to different fields, the relevance of the results would not satisfy the users. The situation requires the users to have the search skill to get better results. As a result, the Continued Essay, search engines need to understand and guess the intention of the users so as to help the users filter the results. The intelligent search engines shown above are the third generation search engine.
Nowadays, there are some search engines which are essentially different with the second search engines. For example, natural language search engine, clustering search engine, semantic search engine and so on. The kind of search engines is examples, generically called the third generation search engine. B. Problem Domain. According to 'Search Engines Information Retrieval in Practice' (W.Bruce, 2010), there are three 'big issues' in the field of information retrieval in the 1960s, and the problems have not been solved nowadays. The major core problem is relevance, which is a basic conception of information retrieval. If the index database compares a query with the information in the index simply and examples, returns the exact match, the relevance of the results would not be good enough because different words could express the examples, same meaning, and it is called 'vocabulary mismatch problem' in information retrieval (Furnas et al., 1987). As a result, it is necessary to distinguish the concepts of topical relevance and user relevance. The queries are in the same topic if a query and and egypt and contrast, key words in the index are topical relevant. For example, weather and snow are topical relevant.
When it comes to the user relevant, the results would be based on the history records of the user. To solve the problem of relevant, researchers bring forward many retrieval models, which are the fundament of ranking algorithm. A search engine uses ranking algorithms to yield the result list. And a good ranking algorithm could find most of the query relevant results. However, most of ranking algorithms are based on the static feature of the text rather than language structure, which means the ranking algorithms would consider more about the number of words appearing than whether the word is of modernism, a noun or adjective. Some advanced algorithms consider the language structure as the second factor of ranking the of hiphop music, webpages while the most important is still appearing rate of examples of modernism words. The second core problem is evaluation problem.
In 1960s, Cyril Cleverdon made the evaluation method (Cyril, 1970). Music. He used two evaluation factors'precision and recall which are even popular now. Precision is examples, a factor which matches intuition and it is the ratio of relevant document of all the searched documents. Recall is the body pictures, proportion of searched documents of the whole documents. And there is examples of modernism, a hypothesis when recall is Human Not be Continued Essay example, used: Given the query, all the relevant documents are available. It is obviously impossible for examples of modernism, a large database.
However, it would be useful when it comes to violating social examples the smaller test collection. What is more, the clickthrough rate records the clicked documents during the process of search. It could be one of the evaluation factors because the clickthrough rate with other log data is relevant with relevance. But in the project, clickthrough cannot be tested to evaluate the search engine. However, the search engine company still uses relevance judgment as a supplement to determine the effectiveness of the of modernism, results. The third core problem is how to pay attention to Should Not be Essay example the users and their needs. Of Modernism. After all, the evaluation is origin, user-centered, which means the users decide whether a search engine is good or not. However, keyword queries are often poor descriptions of actual information needs. For example, 'blue' might be a color or a feeling or a type of song.
Therefore, lots of researches about interaction between users and the search engine have been done. Finally, query refinement techniques such as query expansion, query suggestion, relevance feedback refine the query and examples, improve the ranking results. This section describes the software requirements which include software I have selected and the reason why I selected them, and then it explains the architectural design of my search engine. A. Body Pictures. Software Requirements. The search engine is examples, developed using Eclipse running on a Windows 8 operating system. The comparison of several kinds of technique in platforms and application of platforms are shown respectively as Table 1 and Table 2 (Jing, 2010: 25). As the project might run in cross-platform, considering speed, cost, and pictures, expansionism, I choose the JSP to be my development technology. And Eclipse is examples of modernism, convenient to debug and run the java code, so I consider it as my programming software. And I use Tomcat (a web application server developed by the same company of origin JSP) to configure the web environment and publish my search engine webpage. B. System Architecture. According to the basic procedure and the function of a simple search engine written above, I take the architecture shown as Figure 1, which is based on a similar figure that can be found in 'Development of Lucene + Nutch Search Engine' (Xuesong, 2008).
It is composed by 5 main modules which are crawling of webpage information, analysis of of modernism webpage content, foundation of webpage index, sorting of webpage search result, and tools and interfaces of webpage retrieval. The main modules could finish the whole webpage search engine with other information retrieval technology. Crawling of webpage information. The software or system which collects the webpage information is called a web crawler. Generally, a web crawler uses the hyperlink in the webpage to traversal of the whole Internet, which means the crawler could crawl from one HTML document to another HTML document by URL references. Suppose the Internet is pictures, a super large graph whose node is the webpage and directed edge is the hyperlink in examples the webpage. And then we could use the method of graph traversal to access the Internet (Gang and Zhendong, 2010: 11-12). Generally, the Internet graph could be traversed by two methods which are breadth-first traversal and depth-first traversal respectively. However, if the the depth-first traversal is used, the crawler might fall in the much 'depth' of the graph (most of them would be spam or useless information) or go into the 'black hole' (The black hole is the hyperlink of the girls body, page points to itself, or the different URLs point to the same webpage) of the Internet so that it could not get out to search other webpages. While we could not use the complete breadth-first traversal because the results would be affected by of modernism initial URL the user chooses to a large extent. As a result, two methods described above are not suitable in the project.
Luckily, there is a third method to traverse the Internet which is called the preferential crawler (Bing, 2009: 201). The preferential crawler would allocate each webpage a value of importance at the first place. And then the method would be the pictures, same with breadth-first traversal except that the initial webpage would be the most important webpage, and the next webpage would be the of modernism, second most important webpage, and so on. Now, the problem is how much each webpage values. Actually, there are many factors affecting the importance of a webpage, such as popularity of hyperlink, the importance of the origin of hiphop, hyperlink, average depth of hyperlink, quality of the website, and examples of modernism, the weight of history etc. The popularity of compare and contrast hyperlink depends on the number and examples of modernism, quality of how do solar affect earth backlinks which link to the current URL. And we define it as IB(P). The importance of hyperlink is a function of string of URL. Examples. For example, the URL with '.com' or 'home' would be more important than those with '.cc' or 'map'.
And we call it as IL(P). Then, we could define the importance of webpage I(P) as following (Gang and Zhendong, 2010:22): In the function, a and b are the parameters which adjust the proportion of IB(P) and IL(P). And the violating norms, average depth of examples link would be guaranteed by the breadth-first algorithm. Analysis of webpage content.
Generally, the webpages or the documents which are crawled by girls the web crawler would be analyzed at the first place for examples of modernism, building the index later. The analysis should filter the and contrast, format information and advertisement in the webpage to get the effective document content. Therefore, there are two tasks in the analysis process of webpage content: analyzing the basic information of webpage and recognizing the structure of webpage content. The aim of the tasks is the same to extract effective data from the webpages and filter the spam in the Internet. Furthermore, the duplicated webpage should be deleted during analysis to avoid the same results appearing at the same time.
It would be difficult and time-consuming to finish all the items written above by checking the webpages character by character. In the project, I use the 'regular expression' to finish the process of analysis. The 'regular expression' could extract the valid information from webpages by matching texts with the 'regular expression pattern'. The module of the how do solar affect, analysis part is shown as figure 2 (Xuesong, 2008:46). Natural Language Process. Actually, the 'regular expression' just eliminates the examples, spam in the webpages but not extract the important information. For example, in each book, the words like 'a', 'of' cannot be avoided, however, in most circumstances, these words are not the focus of the search engine users.
As a result, these words could be neglected and not listed in the key words. The natural language process should also be used in the query of users. If the Case Study Review: Neonatal, user inputs a sentence as a query, the search engine would give worse results compared that break the sentence down to several key words when the of modernism, natural language process is not used. So, it is very important to let the search engine understand the natural language. The first thing I dealt with is to Human Continued set a list of stop words like 'of' and 'the'. These words are neither the focus of the users, nor cannot provide any information.
The common of these words is of modernism, that they appear very frequently so that if consider them as key words, much memory would be wasted and more useless results would appear. The second I have done is to neglect the tense of the verbs and the plural of the nouns. It could be done by extracting the 'stem' of the words so that the tense, the Torture Essay, plural or other forms converting would be ignored. For example, the stem word of 'universal', 'universe', 'university', and 'universities' is 'univers'. Examples. As a result, conversion of most words could be found and would not affect the girls body pictures, match between the queries and the key words in the index. Foundation of webpage index.
The webpages have to be indexed for of modernism, the later use. And a better designed index could increase searching speed and Human Torture Continued example, locate the webpage more preciously so as to decrease the cost. The function of index is to analyze the search information, extract key words from the documents, and examples, build the index table of documents. There are many index models in the field of search engine, such as inverted document index, vector space model, probability model and social examples, so on. Of Modernism. And it is very important because the structure and Study SimplyThick, effectiveness are the keys of web information index system. As a result, it is required to be easy to implement, maintain, retrieval information quickly, and need little space. Nowadays, most search engines use the inverted index to be the index model (Manish, 2011) because the structure is of modernism, proper to response the key words retrieval quickly. Its structure considers the key words as index key words and access entrance of linked list. And the inverted index could determine the origin of hiphop, list of document directly through index keywords. To get the performance of the examples, search engine better, the compare and contrast, inverted index is usually stored in the memory.
And to reduce the pressure of the memory, the document is represented by examples a unique document code while all the documents and their codes would be stored in the database. The basic structure of inverted index is showed below as figure 3 (Xuesong, 2008: 67). In the figure 3, the key words are the results of 'analysis of webpage content', and the documents in the inverted index are actually the code of documents. Body. Each item in the structure of inverted index is an index item with relevant information generated by the key words. The advantage of of modernism inverted index is that it changes the organization of information to be convenient to retrieval information while other models have to search every document to find out whether the key words are included or not. Sort of results. There are a lot of girls body pictures webpages (web spams) which include most keywords but only the keywords. Absolutely, they are not the users' needs.
To avoid the spams filling in the list of results and let the users find what they want as soon as possible, it is very important to sort the results. During the sorting process, the importance of the webpage itself would take effect. And PAGERANK and HITS algorithms could calculate the importance of webpages based on the structure of the Web (Gang, 2011: 80). A famous and popular way to sort the results is the PAGERANK algorithm. The results yielded by the search engine are generally sorted by the importance of the webpage itself which could be measured by examples the connection among webpages. The PAGERANK method suppose the Internet as a democracy environment, we could measure the importance of webpage by the link structure.
For example, when webpage A has a link to girls pictures webpage B, the weight of webpage B would increase (Xuesong, 2008:235). There are two hypothesizes in the PAGERANK algorithm (Junlin, 2012: 138). One of them is that if a page is linked many times, the webpage is very important. If a webpage is of modernism, linked by another important webpage, the webpage is also important. In a word, the importance could be passed among webpages. Compare And Contrast. The other hypothesis is that users access webpage randomly, browse the webpage with the hyperlinks, and never go back to of modernism browse the previous webpage. As a result, the next webpage is more important than the previous one. However, there is a serious problem in PAGERANK that the PAGERANK is not query dependent so that each webpage would have the Case Literature Review: Neonatal NEC and SimplyThick, same value of PAGERANK for all queries. What is more, spam pages could link to one webpage to promote the importance of the page. Besides, the third problem in PAGERANK that only uses in-links to a page and never uses out-links.
To figure out the problems, we could use the HITS algorithm which defines the authority that many other pages point to examples of modernism the webpage and the hug that the page has outgoing links to many other pages. The basic idea is similar to PAGERANK that dig the useful information by links in the Internet. And HITS algorithm considers authority and hug respectively that it evaluates hug based on the evaluation of authority. Finally, a weight would be assigned to the webpage. The authority is solar earth, relevant with the quality of content information so as to attract many webpages to link while the hug is relevant with the quality of of modernism hyperlink page which is solar earth, provided by the webpage.
The higher authority webpages a webpage links, the higher its hug would be (Christopher, 2008). And the input of the HITS algorithm is known query relevant webpages, as a result, HITS algorithm usually supplies the webpages which are relevant to the query which is unlike the PAGERANK algorithm. It means that the number of examples of modernism webpages 'HITS' searched would be more than that of 'PAGERANK'. However, there are some disadvantages in the HITS algorithm. The first of all is that it is a query relevant algorithm which means it could not start calculating until the users input the query. Social Norms Examples. The second problem is that tightly-knit community effect could happen, which means if the query-relevant webpages link to other webpages which are not relevant and link to each other, the HITS algorithm would give them a high rank so that users might not get the query relevant information. The third is that the structure is not stable, which means if one webpage is examples, deleted or the few links change, the sorting according to the HITS algorithm would be great changed (Junlin, 2012: 144). Graphical User Interface.
In the Literature Review: Essay, section of graphical user interface (GUI), based on the famous search engine company Google, the home page would be very simple and convenient for examples, users to search the information that he/she wants to. And my home page would be much more simply because the search engine could only search the webpage and text. The current home page is shown as figure 4: The users could input the words or the girls pictures, sentence they want to examples of modernism search in the left text box while they could type the number of results per page (n) they want in the right text box. And a brief introduction has been given for girls body, the users to use the search engine more easily. The next webpage would show the previous n results of all the results.
And at the same time the page would tell the user how many results in total, the titles of searched webpages, the contents which include the words that the user searches, the websites of searched webpages, the time when the webpage is crawled which is helpful for the update of the database of the whole search engine, and examples, which page current webpage is. Users could also click the button to select the first page, the previous page, the next page and the last page. What is more, users could decide which method to music rank the results (HITS or PAGERANK). Suppose a user wants to examples search the 'robot' information and let the search engine return 3 results per page. Social Examples. They input the word 'robot' in the lefe and '3' in of modernism the right, and then press the button 'search'. Compare. The next page would be as figure 5: We could find out from the picture above that there are six results in total and it shows the first five webpages that include the word 'robot', which is highlighted in the current page. And at the top of the page, users could choose using the 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS' to rank the pages. At the examples, bottom of the page, users could see other results in the next page by social norms clicking 'Next'. The pattern of next page is almost the same as the one above. And when users click 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS', the different results and ranking methods would be shown.
What is of modernism, worth noticing is the essential difference between 'PAGERANK' and 'HITS'. In the instruction of the report, three core problems have been brought forward. And a part of the how do solar flares affect earth, first problem and the third problem could be solved by 'analysis of webpage content' and examples of modernism, 'natural language process'. And the main aim of the reporting facility is to provide the information of 'user-relevant' so as to solve the other part of the first problem. The reporting facility is responsible to record every query the mesopotamia and egypt compare and contrast, user has done. When the new query is input, the search engine would find the similar information of the old queries, and the results would have the characteristic of the user. The other aim of reporting facility is to let the of modernism, user know what other users are searching. When the user inputs the pictures, query, the query would be stored in the database. And at examples the same time, the old queries could be loaded from the database to mesopotamia and contrast compare the new query to find the similar information.
The database would store the key words, the times that the key words has been searched, and of modernism, the last time when the key word is solar affect, searched. What is of modernism, more, if any user wants to how do affect earth see what he/she has searched before, the of modernism, queries could have been visualized in the graphical user interface. According to the deliveries and typical criterion of violating norms search engine, some experiments have been done to evaluate the search engine I have made. And the of modernism, test case would be the webpages of 'Durham University' which means that the webpages the crawler crawls start with 'www.dur.ac.uk'. The criterion and the results of the experiments would be shown. Finally, the solutions to the problems in the part of 'problem domain' and girls pictures, the benefits and deflects of the search engine would be demonstrated. Criterion of Evaluating the Search Engine. In 1973, Lancaster and Fayen listed 6 factors to examples evaluate the search engines, coverage, recall ratio, precision ratio, response time, user effort, and format output (Lancaster and Fayen, 1973). Although the index has been brought forward over how do solar, 40 years ago, and the target is the traditional online information retrieval system.
However, in examples of modernism terms of the essence of information retrieval system, the evaluation factors are still useful even nowadays. Later, after Heting Chu and Marilyn Rosenthal analyze and girls, compare three famous search engines (Alta Vista, Excite, and Lycos), they come up with five aspects to evaluate the search engines, respectively indexing, search power, search effect, output, and users' burden (Chu and examples, Rosenthal, 1996). With the development of the research, the user experience is paid more and more attention. Pictures. Belkin considers the essential issue in the information retrieval system is examples of modernism, anomalous state of knowledge (ASK) (Belkin, 1993), which is an important part of the information retrieval model. Bell considers the complexity of the web based on the former research, and violating social norms examples, focus on examples the user experience when evaluating the search engine (Bell, 1998). Considering the standard criterion above and the concrete condition of the current mainstream search engines, I think the following criterion is reasonable to evaluate the search engine in general. Capability of the Search Engine.
The factor includes the capacity and coverage of the database of the search engine, the content and the depth of indexing, and the novel rate of the database. Social Examples. The first one would affect the 'recall' factor directly according to the statistics, which shows that the more webpages the database has, the more results might be searched. Usually, the index database is composed of URL, name of document, content, titles, sub-titles and so on. The content of the combination would affect the precision of the search engines directly. In the meanwhile, the organization of the webpages is a multilayered hypertext structure, and examples, the depth of indexing means which layer the search engines index.
For example, some search engines only index the home page (the first layer) while some others index deeper layer. The other meaning of the depth is whether the search index all the webpage or just some content. For example, some search engines only origin of hiphop, index the name or the title of the examples, HTML document while others index the whole content of the webpages. Generally, the more content a search engine indexes, the better the indexing effect is and the more resources would be occupied. The novel rate includes two aspects, uniqueness and update frequency. Uniqueness of a search engine is the ratio of the unique results which other search engines do not contain in mesopotamia compare all the results the search engine returns. And nowadays, the update frequency is very important because the information in the web varies largely in a second and is unpredictable. As a result, the search engine has to promise the ''' of the examples, information and avoid the 'dead hyperlinks'. When it comes to my search engine, the test case is the webpages of 'Durham University', the capacity of the database is limited.
However, the content and the depth of indexing would be very comprehensive, which means that the database would save all the contents of each webpage. But, the database would never be updated because it is not an how do solar affect earth, on-line version now. The aim of the test is to evaluate the performance but not the capability. The factor includes construction of indexing expression and the indexing function. In 1998, Rousseau et al. found that one of the difficulties is how to bring forward keywords and use the different command indicators when using the on-line library (Fang and examples, Salvendy, 2000). In fact, the search engine has the flares affect, same problem with the of modernism, on-line library. Flares Affect Earth. And for the most search engines, the queries the users input are the examples of modernism, most important factor for the results. However, the queries would be different even if when the different users search the same target. To solve the problem, some search engines (such as AskJeeves) would provide some other relevant keywords to give the users more choices to get more and Human Torture Not be Essay, better results.
And some user-friendly search engine supply the toolbar and dropdown menu to help the examples, users come up with more detailed query so as to get more satisfied results. The number and effects of indexing functions provided by origin music the search engines would affect the indexing results seriously. And many indexing technologies used in the traditional on-line indexing system are developed to be the important technologies in the search engine field, such as Boolean index, truncation index, position index, and limited index. In the meanwhile, the examples, graphic user interface has been separated as the normal index interface and advanced index interface according to the needs of the Study Literature NEC and Essay, users. And almost all the search engines do not differentiate the lowercase and examples of modernism, uppercase of the Case Literature Review: Neonatal NEC and Essay, words and consider the list of stop words. In my search engine, I take the examples of modernism, simpleness as the most important factor in the graphic user interface. As a result, there is no toolbar and dropdown menu existing. However, it has its own stop words list and do not differentiate the lowercase and uppercase of the words.
Furthermore, it supports the Boolean query to help users get more satisfied results. This factor is very important to evaluate the search engine I have made because the search engine could be quantized to compare with other search engines. The search engine has to deal with more information, which is the significant different from on-line indexing system. If the violating norms examples, indexing algorithms were not improved, it would take lots of time to deal with a simple search. And most of the examples of modernism, users would not wait for the search engine when they use it to search the information. There are no standard test cases to test the average response time of the origin music, search engines.
And it is examples of modernism, not fair to compare my search engine with the famous search engine like Google because the scale of the database is not comparative. How Do Affect Earth. As a result, I would give some words randomly and give a simple list of response time of the words. The experiments have been tested when the number of webpages is 998 and the number of the keywords is 185451. The detail information would be listed as table 1. From the table 1, we could see that the process of searching would take too much time for the user. There are two main reasons slowing down the examples, speed of the search engine.
The first one is flares earth, that the graphic user interface requires the examples, part of content which include the keywords returns. If we just revise it to return just the title or just one sentence, the time would be reduced to less than 1 second. Case Study Literature Review: SimplyThick Essay. The second one affecting time is the query in the database. For supporting the fuzzy query, the query 'like' has to be used, however, it takes too much time. If the fuzzy query is not a necessary, the time accessing the database would decrease significantly. Recall and Precision. These two factors are very important in the past when the information is limited.
However, nowadays, the users pay more attention to whether the hyperlinks of the information they want appear in the first several pages. The following table shows the relationship between the retrieved webpages and examples, relevance (C.J., 2010). The calculation of recall and precision is as follows: In the function, |.| means the number of '.'. As the equation shows, the measure of these two factors in the search engine would not be easy, especially for the recall because it is origin, even harder to get the number of 'A'. What is more, in my search engine, we could suggest that in the PAGERANK method, there is no non-relevant retrieved webpage existing because the Boolean match has been used. In a word, the value of these factors would be very high in my search engine but it is useless to compare with other search engines by these two factors. The format and content of output. The outputs of the results are different among search engines, however, there are almost three parts: title, summary, and URL in all the search engines, what is more, the keywords are highlighted in some search engines.
What is more, some search engines add introduction, type, webpage size, date, hyperlinks to detail the results. Furthermore, the search engine would show that how long it would take and how many results it returns. If the number of the results would be large, the keyword is not useful for searching while the number is small demonstrates that the keyword is too special. In the graphic user interface of my search engine, it would return all the basic parts above and the keywords are highlighted. What is examples of modernism, more, it would return time and the number of Torture Not be Continued Essay results. In the part, three more functions are included, post-processing, assistance process, and information filter. The post-processing allows the users to type more keywords to search the information in the former results. During the process of assistance, search engines usually provide the preview function or cached snapshot function. The information filtering include two aspects, one is that the search engine would filter some unhealthy information for the immaturity while the other aspect is to return different results to different users according to the users' history records.
In my search engine, there are no functions such as 'search in the result', preview, and of modernism, information filtering. However, the reporting facility would save the users' queries so as to analyze it later. Comparison between the PAGERANK and HITS. According to the principle of the Study Literature NEC and SimplyThick, PAGERANK and HITS algorithm, it seems that they are similar which are based on examples the hyperlinks and origin of hiphop music, use the eigenvector. However, the differences between the algorithms are obvious according to the principles and experiments.
The first one is that HITS algorithm is query-dependent because the examples of modernism, authority of the HITS is the weight of the indexing theme. However, PAGERANK is a query-independent algorithm because it is independent with the Case Study Literature Review: NEC and Essay, indexing theme. Examples. The PAGERANK algorithm is based on the 'reference analysis', addition with the quality of the Should Not be Essay, Internet. It not only considers the number of the in-linked webpages, but also regards the importance of the in-linked webpages. The second one is that HITS algorithm gets the examples of modernism, initial processing data based on the text search engine, and the importance of the webpages passes from the hub page to the authority page. What is more, in the HITS algorithm, the hub and the authority improve each other. While the PAGERANK algorithm is origin of hiphop, based on the random surfer model, which means that the importance of the webpages transfers among the authority webpages. The third one is that the response time of the HITS algorithm is more than that of the PAGERANK algorithm. Although the HITS algorithm analyzes the fewer webpages, however, it has to extract the initial results set from the search engine and expand to the basic results set, which would take lots of time. While superficially the of modernism, PAGERANK algorithm deals with more webpages, but the processing runs in advance, as a result, the response time seems less.
This section contains evaluations on the work carried out during the course. The first sub-section focuses on evaluating the flares affect, solutions selected and the second sub-section assesses the implementation and evaluation of the resulting systems. Evaluation of of modernism Solutions. The final aim of the project is to build a search engine and compare the ranking algorithm PAGERANK and compare and contrast, HITS. Examples. To realize the Torture Should Essay, aim, the deliverables have been shown in the introduction part. The following part is to evaluate each part in of modernism the deliverables. The first one in the minimum objectives is to design a web crawler. The detail has been introduced and origin of hiphop music, it actually works. However, there are some problems in the crawler part.
The biggest problem is that the crawler crawls the webpages so fast that sometimes it would be misunderstood as a malware. For example, when the crawler crawls the test case which is exactly the webpage in the Durham University, the firewall of the university is always triggered and of modernism, stop the crawler continue crawling. The second problem is that the crawler part takes too much time because it has to run on line. Each time the crawler saves a document, it would save the hyperlinks in of hiphop music the document in a array. However, not all the hyperlinks could be connected, as a result, the code has to of modernism get the HTTP code from the Internet, which would take time. Only when the HTTP code is 200, the social examples, hyperlink could be connected, otherwise, the hyperlink could not be access. Another time-consuming part is to remove the duplicated URLs from the array when the of modernism, scale of array is large. As a result, it is very easy to solve the problem actually. As long as let the Review: NEC and, crawler wait for 1 or 2 seconds, the examples, firewall would not be triggered, however, the crawler part would take more time because of the second problem. The second in the minimum objectives is to build and maintain an Human Should Continued example, index. Here I choose the examples, inverted index as the index model because it has been widely used in many famous search engines, even the biggest open source search engine Lucene has been using the inverted index.
And the benefits of the inverted index are obvious and have been introduced in the solution part. The third in the minimum objectives and the second in the intermediate objectives is to design a graphic user interface. The principle of the GUI part is simple and convenient to use, which just include two input boxes which user could input the query and the number of results per page respectively, a very simple instruction guiding users to use the search engine, and several keys for users to choose the ranking algorithm they like. If I have more time, there are lots of things to do. For example, the function of 'search in the results' and cached snapshoot could be added to satisfy the users. The Boolean operators like '+','-' ,'|' could be used in the query to get more accurate information the of hiphop music, user wants. More Boolean operators could be added if the more time is given. The last one in the minimum objectives, the third one in examples of modernism the intermediate objectives and the first one in the advanced objectives are to implement ranking algorithms, and the basic ranking algorithm I choose is a simple one, the Boolean model added fuzzy search to return the relevant webpages. The method promises that the returned results are definitely relevant to the query, which means that the precision of the search engine would be 100 percent. However, some other models have not been tested and cannot be compared each other.
The PAGERANK algorithm and HITS algorithm I implement is the most original one, which could compare and analyze the results more easily. However, the effect of the original algorithms might not be good so that it would definitely affect the evaluation of the search engine. The last one in the intermediate objectives and the last one in the advanced objectives are to build and visualize a reporting facility which stores the users' query for statistical analysis. The part works but it is not a former work of providing the users their unique results even if they search the same word. In the end, although all the given objectives were completed, the improvements could still be done to make the search engine better and to affect earth make the of modernism, test data more convinced. Evaluation of Implementation. According to the 'Results' part, the search engine has been evaluated. However, there are still some problems need to be solved. First of all, the test case is not good. And because of the dynamics of the Internet, many webpages could not be accessed after it has been crawled. Furthermore, the disadvantage of the crawler leads to Case Study Review: Neonatal NEC and Essay the limited scale of the test case.
As a result, it seems that the capability of the search engine is not good. But it is not true, if more time could be given, the detail in the crawling algorithm would be improved and the scale of the test case would be larger, the speed would rise significantly. The second worth noticing is that the indexing method, the Boolean query could work and the quality of the examples of modernism, returned results is high. Body. However, the toolbar and dropdown menu would be added if I have more time. In the third part, we could see that the response time is a little intolerable, the reasons of which have been analyzed and the quantities of experiments could prove that reading and analyzing the sentence which include the key words from of modernism, raw file which downloads from the mesopotamia compare, webpages directly take too much time. If just one sentence or just title is returned, the examples of modernism, time would be reduced significantly. And it seems that the recall and precision are not good factors to evaluate my search engine. However, there are no more famous factors to evaluate the search engine as the problem domain in the 'Related Work' says. The format and content in how do solar flares earth my search engine keep the same form with other famous search engines such as Google. The last part of evaluation in my search engine could not be measured because it is more like a expansion and future work of the examples, project.
In a word, the experiments could prove that the search engine could work and be able to compare the PAGERANK and Study Literature Neonatal SimplyThick, HITS algorithms clearly, which realize the basic purpose of the project. But there are lots of details that could be improved. The purpose of the project is to build a search engine and compare the PAGERANK and examples of modernism, HITS ranking algorithms. The work has been separated to several sub-modules and each part has been done as deliverables, crawler, index, and graphic user interface. During the process of building the search engine, some key techniques have been breakthrough and three key problems have been tried to be solved. The crawler takes the preferential traversal to Case Literature Neonatal NEC and SimplyThick Essay access the whole Internet. Examples. The benefit is that it not only avoids the black hole in the Internet, but also allows the girls body, most important webpages to of modernism be crawled at first. And then the documents the crawler has crawled have to be dealt with for the indexing using. The content of the webpages always contains the useless format information and origin music, advertisements. As a result, the keywords in the content have to be extracted and the spam in the Internet is also filtered. The aim of the part includes extracting words, eliminating punctuation mark, convert between uppercase and lowercase letters, resuming word stem, eliminating conjunction and high frequency words.
What is more, the dictionary of stop words is built to extract the useful key words from the content and the stems of the words are used to neglect the tense of the verbs and the plural of the examples, nouns. In the index part, the compare, inverted index is used rather than the normal index which would increase the searching speed significantly. And the ranking algorithms I have implemented include the basic Boolean algorithm, PAGERANK algorithm, and HITS algorithm. The graphic user interface is designed to be simple and convenient to be used by examples of modernism the users. Origin Of Hiphop Music. And the reporting facility saves all the queries of the users for the statistics use and would finally be used in the future. In the problem domain in the part of 'Related Work', three issues have been brought forward. The first one is how to define relevance, in my search engine, the techniques of the Boolean match, stems of the examples, words, and natural language processing are used to solve the girls body pictures, problem effectively. The second issue is how to evaluate the search engine. In the part of 'Results', the whole system of evaluation has been given, although it is examples of modernism, not appropriate for evaluating my search engine, however, it is quite a good system for evaluating the origin of hiphop, common search engine because it covers almost every aspect of the search engine. The last issue is how to examples of modernism satisfy the users.
In my search engine, the former work has been done by the reporting facility. However, the problem has not been solved in Case Study Literature SimplyThick Essay the project. But it is definitely the focus of the future work. Luo Gang and Wang Zhendong , (2010). Writing a web crawler by yourself, 1st Ed., Tsinghua Univeristy Press. Wang Xuesong, (2008). Development of Lecene+Nutch Search Engine, 1st Ed, Post Telecom Press. Yu Jing, (2010).
Course of of modernism JavaWeb Application Development, 1st Ed, Beijing University of and egypt compare Posts and examples, Telecommunications Press. W.Bruce Croft, Donald Metzler, and how do solar affect, Trevor Strohman, (2010). Search Engines Information Retrieval in Practice, 1st Ed, China Machine Press. Jawadekar, Waman, (2011). Knowledge Management: Text Cases, Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Manish Patil, Sharma V. Thankachan, Rahul Shah, Wing-Kai Hon, Jeffrey Scott Vitter and Sabrina Chandrasekaran, (2011). Inverted Indexes for Phrases and Strings. Available at: wkhon/papers/PTSHVC11.pdf (Accessed: 25 January, 2014)
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Bing Liu, (2009). Web Data Mining, 1st Ed, Tsinghua Univeristy Press. Luo Gang, (2011). Encoding Technology in the Search Engine ' Lucene Java, 1st Ed, Publishing House of Electronics Industry. Junlin Zhang, (2012). This is the Search Engine, 2nd Ed, Publishing House of Electronics Industry. Christopher D. Manning, Prabhakar Raghavan and Hinrich Sch??tze,(2008). Introduction to Information Retrieval.
Cambridge University Press. Wei Zhang (2005), 'Search Engine Optimization Strategy Research based on PageRank Algorithm', unpublished. Yibing Li (2011), 'Webpage Ranking Algorithm Study based on Search Engine', umpublished. China Internet Network Information Center(CNNIC)(2013). The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation. Available at: http://www.cnnic.net.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/hlwtjbg/201403/t20140305_46240.htm (Accessed: 24 April 2014) Shuling Dong (2011), 'Research and Improvement of Ranking Algorithms on Search Engine', umpublished. Lina Zhang, Zhiyin Yang, Bo Yang (2011), 'Research on the Current Development Situation on the Third-Generation Search Engine', Sci-Tech Information Development Economy, 21(34):141-143.
Lancaster, F. W. Examples. Fayen, E. G. (1973). Information Retrieval On-Line. Of Modernism. Los Angeles: Melville Pub. Co. Heting Chu and Marilyn Rosenthal.,(1996). 'Search Engines for the World Wide Web: A Comparative Study and Evaluation Methodology', in Case Neonatal NEC and Essay Proc. Of the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Society for of modernism, Information Science, pp.127-135. Belkin, IV.j.,(1993). 'Interaction with texts: information retrieval as information-seeking behavior, Information Retrieval '93'55-66. Bell, S. 'Guidelines for origin music, the development of methodologies to evaluate Internet search engines:' Please do a couple of searches and send the examples of modernism, feedback to me''. Glasgow: Department of girls pictures Information Science, University of Strathelyde (MSeThesis), 1998.
X. Fang and G. Salvendy(2000). 'Keyword comparison: a user-centered feature for improving web search tools', Int.J.Human-Computer Studies, Vol.52:915-931. C.J. van RIJSBERGEN(2010). Information Retrieval. Available at: http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/Keith/pdf/Chapter7.pdf (Accessed: 28 April 2014) If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
Each of us is qualified to examples a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to earth help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Search Engines . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/information-technology/search-engine.php [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on examples of modernism our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and and egypt, delivered on time.
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