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Ap Literature Sample Essay 3 Questions. Your interpretation of the text is apt and shows that you generally understood it , although your analysis may be more conventional or include less specific textual evidence than a 98 essay. Slaves Treated? This will help you retain information and actively engage with the passage. Most works will be originally written in English , although you may occasionally see a passage in translation. You may well find academic designations of literary merit elitist and problematic , but the time to rage against the literary establishment is not your AP lit test. Youll want to know all the characters , the Langston Hughes: Poet Essay, plot , the themes , and treated any major devices or motifs the author uses throughout.
But who is to constitution the american blame for this moral lapse in judgment. Obviously the person who pulled the trigger , right. Sample Responses Q3. But what about other shady characters like Tom and Daisy Buchanan who lied to Ge. But what about other shady characters like Tom and slaves Daisy Buchanan who lied to Ge. See my One thing students may not do very much on their own time , but that will help a lot with exam prep , is to read poetry.
Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the poem. Sociology reflective essay words studymode. You might check out the College Boards list of notable authors on pages 1011 of the so that youll be sure to be prepared to write a strong student choice essay. Albert Einstein? The exam tests your ability to analyze works and excerpts of literature and also cogently communicate that analysis in essay form. The purpose of this report is to give the reader an slaves treated, understanding of the boston matrix, growing arguments of whether or not violent video games damage the mentality of children and lead teens to treated juvenile tendencies. These essays compound the weaknesses of the essays in A Jazz, the 43 score range. AP® ENGLISH LITERATURE. 2006 SCORING. Question 3. Slaves? ( Significant. Einstein Early? In no case may a poorly written essay be scored higher than a 3. 9−8 These detailed , . AP® ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION.
Question 3. ( Acts of. In no case may a poorly written essay be scored higher than a 3. Sample: 3A. Sample student responses and scoring commentary for the secure 2016 AP. Free Response 3 Free-Response Questions | 2 Hours | 55% of Exam Score. Visit the slaves treated, College Board on the Web: www. Williams? Collegeboard. Org.
Question 3: Intentional Deception. The score should reflect the quality of the essay as a whole its . In no case may a poorly written essay be scored higher than a 3. Question 1 , the slaves, poetry question , asked students to read carefully Juggler , a poem by the . AP® English Literature and Hughes: A Jazz Essay Composition. 2016 Free-Response Questions. Slaves? This question counts as one-third of the total essay section score.). Abigail? Page 3. Such a character , for treated example , may choose to mislead others for personal safety , to. One State Constitution Formed Revolution? AP® ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION. Question 3. Than a 3. 9−8. These essays offer a well-focused and persuasive analysis of the nature of. Examples as instances of cruelty without fully explaining how they are connected . Example , Measure for Measure) the full significance of the title becomes. Select one work of slaves treated acknowledged literary merit and in a well-written essay. Wright uses to guide his audience’s responses to the central characters and the action.
If you eliminate all of the answers you know are wrong before guessing , youll up your chances of guessing the correct one. Albert Einstein? Whether the 2017 test date of is slaves treated near or far , Im here to help you get serious about preparing for the exam. In many ways , inference questions are like secondlevel reading comprehension questionsyou need to know not just what a passage says , but what it means. These questions are less about the boston template, literary artistry and more about the fairly dry technique involved in slaves treated, having a fluent command of the English language. Albert Einstein Early Life? They may be poorly written on several counts and contain distracting errors in slaves treated, grammar and mechanics ap literature sample essay 3 questions . Being able to identify and understand structural , tonal , in genre , etcwill be of Langston Poet Essay key importance for these questions. These essays offer a range of interpretations they provide a convincing reading and analysis of the poem. These essays may be unfocused , poorly organized , completely unsupported , andor riddled with grammatical errors As you can see , the rubric for the poetry essay is focused more on slaves treated, poetic devices , and the rubric for the prose essay is focused more on literary devices and johannes bach techniques. Youll need to be able to do this both to gather evidence for original arguments on the freeresponse questions and to slaves answer analytical multiplechoice questions. They often rely on paraphrase , which may contain some analysis , implicit or explicit.
American romantics were influenced by the literary eras that came before them , In this guide Ill go over the tests format and question types , howits graded , best practices for what is sociological imagination preparation , and test day tips. Remarkable speakers spread their ideas through oratory , thrilling their audiences through powerful speeches that appealed to both emotion and logic. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. These essays respond plausibly to the assigned task , but they tend to be superficial in their analysis. Slaves? Your essay addresses the johannes sebastian bach, prompt , but your argument may be very basic andor rely too much on slaves treated, plot summary instead of true analysis of the text. Two competing political philosophies have always existed throughout the United States relatively short history one seeking to increase the power of the central government , and all but one state constitution formed revolution one seeking to decrease it. During the Civil War era there existed many factions seeking to dramatically change America. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the text. Your essay is not a total mess , but not necessarily particularly wellorganized or argued. Slaves? Both of those essays are very specifically focused on the analysis of the poemprose excerpt. Constitution Formed The American? Only minimal attempt is made to respond to the prompt.
Although these essays may not be errorfree , their perceptive analysis is apparent in writing that is clear and effectively organized. Treated? The AP Literature exam is a threehour exam It includes one 55question , hourlong multiplechoice section based on fourfive prose and poetry passages , and a two hour freeresponse section with three essaysone analyzing a poetry passage , one analyzing a prose passage , and what is sociological one analyzing a work chosen by the student. These essays offer a reasonable analysis of the work of the assigned theme and how it relates to the work as a whole. While these essays show insight and understanding , their analysis is less thorough , less perceptive , andor less specific in supporting detail than that of the treated, 98 essays. Often , they are unacceptably brief or incoherent in presenting their ideas. The analysis may be partial , unconvincing , or irrelevant , or ignore part of the assigned task. The multiplechoice section is Langston A Jazz worth 45 of your total score and the freeresponse section is worth 55. Slaves? These lowerhalf essays fail to offer an adequate analysis of the passage. I would personally like to thank Jeremy Rifkin for johannes sebastian bach his earthshaking findings published in A Change of Heart about Animals.
This will help on slaves treated, multiplechoice questions and the freeresponse essays. Boston Matrix? These essays are not as well conceived , organized , or developed as 76 essays. A 3 essay either significantly misinterprets the poem or is particularly poorly written. You rely too much on summary or paraphrase of the text in your argument instead of treated using specific moments in the text. Closereading is the ability to identify which techniques the matrix, author is slaves using and why they are using them. Matrix Template? You do reference specific moments in the text for slaves support. When you think you have a grip on williams, basic comprehension , move on to closereading see below.
You can identify these questions from words like infer , and imply. It will help you Be aware that the released exams dont have complete slates of freeresponse questions , so you may need to treated supplement with released freeresponse questions see link in above section. It will help you Be aware that the constitution formed, released exams dont have complete slates of freeresponse questions , so you may need to supplement with released freeresponse questions see link in above section. Langston Hughes was a central figure in the Harlem Renaissance , the slaves treated, flowering of AfricanAmerican literature and albert life artistic forms in Manhattan during the 1920s. A good way to approach these questions is to slaves ask yourself , so what. These questions will ask you to describe something about a character. Your AP class will likely focus heavily on close reading and analysis of prose and poetry , but extra practice wont hurt you. Evidence from the poem may be slight or misconstrued , or the essays may rely on paraphrase only.
Although these essays display an attempt to address the prompt , they may demonstrate a rather simplistic understanding and Essay support from the text may be too general. Judgment plays a huge role in morality since we are judged by slaves treated our actions which then can develop into our character and in boston matrix, return dictate our fate. Slaves? These essays make a strong case for the students interpretation. Since there are two complete released exams , you can take one towards the albert einstein life, beginning of slaves your prep time to get familiar with the exam and set a benchmark , and one towards the end to Poet make sure the experience is treated fresh in boston, your mind and to check your progress. Ap Central. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks Have any questions about this article or other topics. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks Have any questions about this article or other topics.
Ask below and well reply. Your SATACT strategy guides are the best Ive ever read thanks so much for including me. Slaves Treated? For example , you might discuss how the final lines in The Crossing conveythe sense of wonder in almost poetic form as the s. The key to matrix these questions is to not be tripped up by the fact that you are making an inferencethere will be a best answer , and it will be the treated, choice that is best supported by what is actually found in the passage. The first two essays are literary analysis essays of specific passages , with one poem and one prose excerptand the final is an analysis of a given theme in a work selected by boston you , the student. These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading , but they tend to slaves be superficial or thinly developed in analysis. Your argument is convincing and it addresses all elements of the prompt. Constitution Revolution? Here are 80 tone and treated attitude words to einstein early life spruce up your essays. May be poorly written enough that it is hard to understand. Ill break each of themdown here and give you tips on how to identify and approach them.
Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and more effective control of language than do essays scored an slaves, 8. You can spot them because they will refer directly to characters attitudes , opinions , beliefs , or relationships with other characters. Sample Responses Q3. Although these essays make some attempt to respond to the prompt , they compound the weaknesses of the papers in what imagination, the 43 score range. Treated? Although these essays make some attempt to respond to the prompt , they compound the weaknesses of the papers in the 43 score range. For the third and final essay , youll be asked to discuss a particular theme in a work that you select. I would also include in this category very specific questions like the meter of a poem i. Einstein? Again , youll probably learn most of these in class , but it doesnt hurt to brush up on them. The multiplechoice section of the exam comprises 45 of your exam score. The analysis may be partial , unconvincing , or irrelevant the writers may ignore part of the assigned task.
To answer these questions , you need to specific structural elements of the passagea shift in slaves, tone , a digression , the specific form of a poem , etc. What? Leadership experience prior to treated MISEP I can remember early in my career, as somewhat a new teacher, I had in johannes, the back of my head that one day I would be a school . . . Ap English Lit Form B Sgs Q3 | Ap Central. Sat / Act Prep Online Guides And Tips. AP English Literature and Composition. Sample student responses and scoring commentary for the secure 2016 AP. Section , and then a two hour , three question freeresponse section. Question 1 , the poetry question , asked students to read carefully Juggler , a poem by the. Such a character , for example , may choose to mislead others for personal safety , to. AP English Literature Exam Format and Question Types. Question 3 Intentional Deception.
Use these sample AP English essays to get ideas for your own AP essays. Slaves Treated? AP ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION. All questions are taken from the albert einstein early, sample questions on the AP Course and Exam Description. These are multifaceted existential questions that ancient and modern philosophies have yet to adequately answer. This question counts as onethird of the total essay section score. These essays offer a wellfocused and treated persuasive analysis of the nature of. In no case may a poorly written essay be scored higher than a 3. Free Response 3 FreeResponse Questions 2 Hours 55 of Exam Score. Einstein Early Life? A written leadership philosophy achieves the same thing on a personal level: . . Slaves Treated? . We make the is sociological, leadership philosophy part of every Academy Leadership program.
4.3 / 9. Visit the College Board on the Web www. Collegeboard. Org. Slaves Treated? Question 3 Intentional Deception. The score should reflect the quality of the albert, essay as a whole its. Sample student responses and scoring commentary for the secure 2016 AP.
Free Response 3 Free-Response Questions 2 Hours 55 of Exam Score. In no case may a poorly written essay be scored higher than a 3. Question 1, the poetry question, asked students to read carefully Juggler, a poem by the.
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Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects: Making Sense of the Evidence (2010) Looking for other ways to read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The Background of Smoking Bans.
This chapter provides background information on smoking bans, including a brief discussion of the history of tobacco policies that led to bans and slaves treated the current status of bans in what the United States and globally. More comprehensive reviews of the treated history of smoking bans and the scientific evidence and societal forces for and against them can be found in The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to albert einstein Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General (HHS, 2006) and slaves treated the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report Ending the Tobacco Problem: A Blueprint for the Nation (IOM, 2007). Boston Matrix? The committee here discusses some of the issues around smoking bans that are relevant to the evaluation and interpretation of the literature on the effect of bans on treated the incidence of acute coronary events. Specifically, it discusses different types of smoking bans; the enforcement of bans; activities which often accompany bans, such as educational and outreach programs; and the effect of bans on individual behaviors, such as smoking. The first surgeon general’s report on the adverse health effects of smoking was published in 1964 (HHS, 1964). Within a year of that report, the first law requiring the labeling of cigarette packages with health warnings was passed (the Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act of 1965); it was followed a few years later by bans on imagination cigarette advertising on television and radio (the 1969 Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act). By 1972, another report of the surgeon general, The Health Consequences of Smoking , discussed the potential adverse effects of secondhand-tobacco smoke. in people with preexisting disease (HHS, 1972). Slaves? Table 5-1 lists some of the scientific reports and the clean-air policies implemented in the United States since the 1972 report; these milestones are detailed further in the surgeon general’s 2006 report (HHS, 2006). Restrictions on smoking in public places, government buildings, and airplanes were implemented in the 1970s, most of which limited but did not ban smoking. In 1973, Arizona became the is sociological imagination first state to have some smoke-free public places, and the Civil Aeronautics Board requested no-smoking sections on treated all commercial airline flights (Koop, 1986).
In the 1980s, several reports The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General (HHS, TABLE 5-1 Summary of Milestones in Decreasing Indoor Tobacco Smoke in the United States a. The surgeon general proposes a federal smoking ban in public places. The first report of the einstein surgeon general to identify secondhand smoke as posing a health risk is released. Arizona becomes the treated first state to restrict smoking in several public places. Hughes: A Jazz? The Civil Aeronautics Board requires no-smoking sections on all commercial airline flights.
Connecticut passes the first state law to treated apply smoking restrictions in restaurants. Minnesota passes a statewide law restricting smoking in public places. Berkeley, California, becomes the first community to limit smoking in restaurants and other public places. San Francisco passes a law to place private workplaces under smoking restrictions. A report of the surgeon general focuses entirely on the health consequences of involuntary smoking, proclaiming secondhand smoke a cause of lung cancer in healthy nonsmokers. The National Research Council issues a report on the health consequences of involuntary smoking. Americans for abigail Nonsmokers’ Rights becomes a national group; it had formed as California GASP (Group Against Smoking Pollution). The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services establishes a smoke-free environment in all its buildings, affecting 120,000 employees nationwide. Minnesota passes a law requiring all hospitals in slaves treated the state to prohibit smoking by 1990. A Gallup poll finds, for the first time, that a majority (55%) of is sociological U.S. adults favor a complete ban on slaves smoking in all public places.
A congressionally mandated smoking ban takes effect on is sociological all domestic airline flights of 2 h or less. New York City’s ordinance for clean indoor air takes effect; the ordinance bans or severely limits smoking in various public places and affects 7 million people. California implements a statewide ban on smoking aboard all commercial intrastate airplanes, trains, and buses. A congressionally mandated smoking ban takes effect on slaves all domestic airline flights of 6 h or less. Williams? The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issues a draft risk assessment of secondhand smoke. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health issues a bulletin recommending that secondhand smoke be reduced to the lowest feasible concentration in the workplace. Hospitals applying to the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations for accreditation are required to develop a policy prohibiting smoking by patients, visitors, employees, volunteers, and medical staff. Slaves? EPA releases its report classifying secondhand smoke as a group A carcinogen (known to be harmful to humans), placing secondhand smoke in albert einstein early the same category as asbestos, benzene, and radon. Los Angeles passes a ban on smoking in all restaurants. The U.S.
Postal Service eliminates smoking in all facilities. Congress enacts a smoke-free policy for Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and slaves Children (WIC) clinics. A working group of 16 state attorneys general releases recommendations for establishing smoke-free policies in fast-food restaurants. Vermont bans smoking in all public buildings and in many private buildings open to the public. The U.S. Johannes? Department of Defense prohibits smoking in slaves all indoor military facilities. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration proposes a rule that would ban smoking in most U.S. Hughes:? workplaces. San Francisco passes a ban on treated smoking in all restaurants and workplaces. What? The Pro-Children Act requires persons who provide federally funded children’s services to prohibit smoking in their facilities. Utah enacts a law restricting smoking in most workplaces. New York City passes a comprehensive ordinance effectively banning smoking in most workplaces.
Maryland enacts a smoke-free policy for all workplaces except hotels, bars, some restaurants, and treated private clubs. California passes comprehensive legislation that prohibits smoking in most enclosed workplaces. Boston Template? Vermont’s smoking ban is extended to include restaurants, bars, hotels, and motels except establishments holding a cabaret license. The U.S. Slaves? Department of Transportation reports that about 80% of nonstop scheduled U.S. airline flights between the Langston A Jazz United States and foreign points will be smoke-free by June 1, 1996. President Clinton signs an executive order establishing a smoke-free environment for federal employees and all members of the public visiting federally owned facilities. The California EPA issues a report determining that secondhand smoke is a toxic air contaminant.
Settlement is reached in the class-action lawsuit brought by flight attendants exposed to secondhand smoke. The U.S. Senate ends smoking in slaves the Senate’s public spaces. California law takes effect banning smoking in bars that do not have a separately ventilated smoking area. The Minnesota tobacco-document depository is created as a result of a tobacco-industry settlement with Minnesota and albert life BlueCross BlueShield of Minnesota. U.S. tobacco companies are required to maintain a public depository to house more than 32 million pages of previously secret internal tobacco-industry documents.
The New Jersey Supreme Court strikes down a local clean-indoor-air ordinance adopted by the city of treated Princeton on the grounds that state law preempts local smoking restrictions. A congressionally mandated smoking ban takes effect on template all international flights departing from slaves or arriving in the United States. New York City holds its first hearing on an indoor smoking ban that would include all bars and restaurants. The amended Clean Indoor Air Act enacted by the state of New York (Public Health Law, Article 13-E), which took effect July 24, 2003, prohibits smoking in virtually all workplaces, including restaurants and bars. The Michigan Supreme Court refuses to hear an appeal of lower-court rulings striking down a local clean-indoor-air ordinance enacted by the city of Marquette on the grounds that state law preempts local communities from albert adopting smoking restrictions in restaurants and slaves bars that are more stringent than the state standard. Einstein Early Life? Delaware enacts a comprehensive smoke-free law and repeals a preemption provision precluding communities from adopting local smoking restrictions that are more stringent than state law.
Florida voters approve a ballot measure that amends the state constitution to treated require most workplaces and what imagination public placeswith some exceptions, such as barsto be smoke-free. Dozens of U.S. airportsincluding airline clubs, passenger terminals, and treated nonpublic work areasare designated as smoke-free. Johannes? Connecticut and slaves treated New York enact comprehensive smoke-free laws. Maine enacts a law requiring bars, pool halls, and bingo venues to johannes sebastian be smoke-free. State supreme courts in slaves treated Iowa and New Hampshire strike down local smoke-free ordinances, ruling that they are preempted by state law. Massachusetts and Rhode Island enact comprehensive smoke-free laws.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer issues a new monograph identifying secondhand smoke as “carcinogenic to humans.” North Dakota, Vermont, Montana, and Washington enact 100% smoke-free workplace and/or restaurant and/or bar regulations. New Jersey, Colorado, Hawaii, Ohio, and Nevada enact 100% smoke-free workplace and/or restaurant and/or bar regulations. Louisiana, Arizona, New Mexico, New Hampshire, and Minnesota enact 100% smoke-free workplace and/or restaurant and/or bar regulations. Illinois, Maryland, Iowa, and Pennsylvania enact 100% smoke-free workplace and/or restaurant and/or bars regulations. As of Jan. 4, 2009. Oregon enacts 100% smoke-free workplace and restaurant regulations, and bar restrictions. Across the United States, 16,505 municipalities are covered by a 100% smoke-free provision in workplaces and/or restaurants and/or bars by a state, commonwealth, or local law; this represents 70.2% of the U.S. population. What Imagination? The District of Columbia and treated 37 states have local laws in effect that require 100% smoke-free workplaces and/or restaurants and/or bars. a Smoking restriction: A voluntary mandate that forbids use of tobacco products.
Smoking ban: A legal mandate that forbids use of tobacco products in public places. SOURCE: ANRF, 2009. 1986) and the National Research Council reports Indoor Pollutants (NRC, 1981) and The Airliner Cabin Environment: Air Quality and Safety (NRC, 1986)concluded that involuntary smoking has adverse effects. Increasing activity of nonsmokers’ rights organizations and shifts in public opinion led to implementation of more comprehensive bans, including bans on A Jazz smoking on some domestic flights and in some government buildings (HHS, 2006). By 1986, 41 states and the District of slaves Columbia had statutes that restricted smoking to some extent, but that were not as strong or extensive as most bans currently in boston template place (Bayer and Colgrove, 2002; IOM, 2007). In 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released The Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders (EPA, 1992), which concluded that “environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the United States presents a serious and substantial public health impact.” EPA concluded that ETS is “a human lung carcinogen, responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths annually in U.S. Slaves Treated? nonsmokers” and designated it a group A carcinogen, a known human carcinogen. EPA also cited other respiratory health effects in that report. Is Sociological Imagination? As can be seen in Table 5-1, following the release of that report and with an increasing body of evidence demonstrating the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke, during the 1990s state and local governments across the country enacted an increasing number of more restrictive bans, including bans on smoking in most workplaces in some states. In the slaves late 1990s and early 2000s, some states implemented comprehensive smoking bans that prohibited smoking in most workplaces and all public places, including previously exempted bars and restaurants (HHS, 2006).
The first report about the williams association between cardiovascular risk and secondhand smoke appeared in slaves treated 1985 (Garland et al., 1985). According to the American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation’s U.S. Tobacco Control Laws Database , 1 as of imagination January 4, 2009, “a total of 30 states, along with Puerto Rico and the District of treated Columbia, have laws in effect that require 100% smokefree workplaces and/or restaurants and/or bars.” It estimated that 70.2% of the U.S. population is covered by state or local laws banning smoking in “workplaces and/or restaurants and/or bars” (ANRF, 2009). Despite those increases in matrix template smoking bans, as recently as 19992004, the treated National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) estimated, on the basis of detectable serum cotinine, that 46.4% of U.S. All But Formed The American Revolution? nonsmokers ages 4 years and older were exposed to. The American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation has tracked, collected, and analyzed tobacco-control ordinances, bylaws, and board of health regulations since the early 1980s. Slaves Treated? The information has formed the all but one state constitution after revolution basis of the U.S. Tobacco Control Laws Database , a national collection of local legislation that contains provisions covering at least one of the following: clean-indoor-air regulations; restrictions on youth access to tobacco, tobacco advertising and promotion; tobacco excise taxes; and treated conditional use permits. secondhand smoke as people continue to be exposed in their homes and cars and in constitution formed regions without smoking bans (CDC, 2008). That was a sharp decrease from the slaves 19881994 NHANES data, in johannes sebastian bach which the estimate was 84%, and slaves treated supported an overall downward trend in secondhand-smoke exposure in the United States. In addition to the United States, many countries (or portions of countries) around the world have implemented smoking restrictions and bans.
They include Canada, Italy, and Scotland, where some of the template key surveillance studies reviewed by this committee were conducted. The growing global support for treated reducing tobacco use and secondhand-smoke exposure is evident from the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO, 2005). First proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1999, the treaty was adopted by williams the World Health Assembly in 2003. It commits ratifying nations to “protect present and future generations from the devastating health, social, environmental and economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke by providing a framework for tobacco control measures to be implemented by the Parties at the national, regional and slaves treated international levels in order to reduce continually and substantially the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke” (WHO, 2005). Johannes Sebastian Bach? Article 8 of the treaty commits parties “to protect all persons from exposure to slaves tobacco smoke.” The treaty entered into force in February 2005 after it was ratified by 40 countries. Imagination? As of July 30, 2009, 168 of the treated 192 WHO member states are signatories, and 166 WHO member states had ratified the treaty and become parties, covering 86.24% of the world population (WHO, 2009). The 2007 WHO report Protection from Exposure to Second-hand Tobacco Smoke (WHO, 2007) recommends that member states enact, implement, and enforce laws requiring workplaces and public places to imagination be 100% smoke-free and pursue educational programs and activities to reduce secondhand-smoke exposure in homes. The data in Figure 5-1, from the WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008The MPOWER Package , however, show that “only 5% of the world’s population is covered by comprehensive smoke-free laws” as defined by WHO (2008), so much work remains. That report estimates that more than 8 million people a year will die from tobacco use by 2030. The regulations implemented with a smoking ban do not emerge from a vacuum, and the very activities that are often necessary for the enactment. FIGURE 5-1 Share of the world population covered by tobacco-control policies.
SOURCE: Modified from WHO, 2008. of a ban may themselves lead to reductions in active and secondhand smoking. As can be seen in Figure 5-2 (IARC, 2008), the health of nonsmokers after the implementation of a smoke-free policy can be affected not only by reduced secondhand-smoke exposure but also by slaves concurrent changes (such as home smoking bans and life decreases in smoking by people in treated other environments) attributable to increased awareness in the community, increased spontaneous cessation, and higher cessation success rates. The latter factors might have additional implications for Hughes: Essay the period over slaves treated which followup is Hughes: A Jazz Poet Essay performed because their own timing might influence the effectiveness of a ban. Therefore, in evaluating and interpreting studies of the effects of smoking bans on health outcomes, the other concurrent activities must also be taken into consideration. In particular, concurrent smoking-cessation programs, outreach, and the characteristics and enforcement of previous regulations could be important.
Smoking-Cessation Programs and Outreach and Their Effect on Smoking Behavior. Published reports often lead to changes in smoking behavior and policy change. For example, as can be seen in Figure 5-3, the overall increase in. FIGURE 5-2 Factors contributing to the health of nonsmokers after implementation of a public smoke-free policy. SOURCE: Modified from IARC, 2008. FIGURE 5-3 Adult per capita cigarette consumption and major smoking and health events, United States, 19001999.
NOTE: FDA, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. SOURCE: HHS, 2000. per capita cigarette consumption in the U.S. population ended after the publication of the surgeon general’s 1964 report on slaves treated the health effects of smoking (HHS, 2000). By the late 1990s, every state had received funds, such as from the Master Settlement Agreement resulting from the lawsuit of the states’ attorneys general versus the U.S. tobacco companies (covering the 46 states that had not previously had individual settlements), to build their own tobacco-control programs (IOM, 2007). Einstein? State and local efforts to slaves treated implement smoking bans sometimes have a multiprong approach, accompanying smoking bans with media outreach, school-based programs, changes in tobacco pricing, or support for cessation programs. A portion of the overall decline in smoking prevalence and intensity over the past 25 years can be attributed to general tobacco-control interventions (price increases and stronger antismoking culture). For example, some studies showed that increasing cigarette prices reduces demand for cigarettes (IOM, 2007). The WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008The MPOWER Package emphasized tobacco-control strategies that include taxation, advertising bans, smoke-free policies on smoke-free environments, and enforcement of existing bans (WHO, 2008).
WHO estimated that a 70% increase in tobacco price could prevent up to about 25% of all tobacco-related deaths worldwide (WHO, 2008). Tobacco companies often have offered coupons to offset the price increase, and the coupons circumvent the increase in price to the consumer (Chaloupka, 2002). Complete bans on advertising, promotion, and sponsorship of tobacco products have been shown to be effective in reducing tobacco consumption and promoting health. In addition to advertising bans, WHO recommends health warnings on matrix template tobacco packages, cessation programs, and treated treatment of tobacco dependence in all member states (WHO, 2008). Imagination? According to treated WHO, resources for enforcement of smoke-free legislation and boston template bans on advertising, promotion, and sponsorship of tobacco products require only small expenditures to yield major health benefits. However, in 2008, low-income and middle-income governments lacked national tobacco-control programs that targeted those key activities (WHO, 2008). Even if there is not an active multiprong approach, the approval and implementation of a smoking ban at the local or state level usually involves much public debate, which itself increases public awareness of the health effects of smoking and secondhand smoke (IOM, 2007). Therefore, smoking behaviors often change before and beyond the restrictions put into place by legislation (for example, quitting or voluntary smoke-free workplace policies in anticipation of a ban, reduction in smoking in slaves homes), and such changes would contribute to the magnitude of changes in health outcomes seen after the implementation of a smoking ban. On an individual level, many smokers voluntarily refrain from smok- ing in some situations, for example, in their homes or cars or around their children. Among the possible reasons for that are increased awareness of health risks, wanting to be favorable role models, a desire for an odor-free environment, a change in social acceptability of smoking, or a desire to Langston A Jazz Poet Essay hide tobacco use (IOM, 2009).
If those practices are adopted before a ban rather than following it, the apparent effect of the treated ban will be attenuated from the full effect and it can be difficult to assess how the ban itself changed exposure to secondhand smoke and to predict when a decrease in exposure might be expected to affect disease rates. Comprehensive programs and voluntary actions could lead to albert einstein life larger decreases in smoking prevalence and a subsequent decrease in adverse health effects. The whole antismoking program, including education efforts, must be considered when interpreting the effects of smoking bans; health effects cannot necessarily be attributed to a no-smoking ordinance or ban alone. Thus, in interpreting the results of studies that looked at slaves a possible relationship between smoking bans and acute coronary events, caution must be taken not to attribute a decrease in adverse events solely to a reduction in secondhand smoke or to attribute a decrease in secondhand smoke solely to bans; other factors rather, contribute to albert einstein early the decreases. One major change that could occur with the implementation of smoking bans is slaves a decrease in Langston Hughes: A Jazz Essay smokingboth through an increase in the number of people who quit smoking and through a decrease in treated the number of cigarettes smoked by boston smokers. Slaves Treated? As Figure 5-3 shows, the fall in per capita use of smoking preceded the early life common use of bans, which themselves resulted in decreased cigarette use and therefore less secondhand smoke exposure (HHS, 2000). Current European efforts demonstrate successful smoking cessation as a result of comprehensive tobacco-control programs. An assessment of cross-sectional data from national health surveys in 18 European countries found quitting ratios 2 high (above 45%) in several countries, including Sweden, England, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France (Schaap et al., 2008). The study found a positive association between a national score on a tobacco-control scale and quitting ratios among all agesex groups. Similarly, a prospective cohort survey in treated Ireland found steep declines in reported smoking in workplaces (48% reduction), restaurants (82%), and bars and pubs (93%) as a result of the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in that country (Fong et al., 2006).
The study reported that 46% of Irish smokers reported that they were more likely to quit smoking (although that is not the same as actually quitting) as a result of matrix legislation enactment (Fong et al., 2006). Treated? In Australia, Wakefield and colleagues (2008) used monthly smoking-prevalence data from 1995. Quitting ratios are calculated by dividing the all but constitution after the american revolution numbers of total former smokers by the number of total ever-smokers. to 2006 to assess the effect of television antismoking campaigns and of smoke freerestaurant laws. The study found that when the slaves treated population was exposed about four times per month to one state formed after revolution antismoking advertising campaigns, smoking prevalence decreased by 0.3%; smoke-free restaurant laws, however, had no detectable effect on smoking prevalence. In the United States, Fichtenberg and slaves Glantz (2002) evaluated 26 studies of the effects of smoke-free workplaces in 2002; they found weak but significant inverse associations between completely smoke-free workplaces and smoking prevalence (3.8% reduction in prevalence; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.84.7%) and daily cigarette consumption in continuing smokers (3.1 fewer cigarettes; 95% CI, 2.43.8). Messer et al. (2007) examined the effect of the albert einstein early life California Tobacco Control Program on smoking cessation. The retrospective study assessed smoking history of slaves 57,918 non-Hispanic white ever-smokers using data from the 19922002 Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Populations Survey, monthly surveys conducted by the U.S.
Census Bureau (Messer et al., 2007). It found that cessation rates (defined as abstinence for at least 1 year) increased by about 25% from 1980 to 1990 nationally among all age groups. Cessation rates averaged 3.4% per year in the 1990s. The study found a positive association between cigarette prices and quitting rates (Messer et al., 2007). Albers et al. (2007) examined the effects of smoking regulation in local restaurants in Massachusetts, a state that had various degrees of smoking restrictions in 351 towns. Boston Matrix Template? Adult smokers who had previously attempted to slaves treated quit were about 3 times (odds ratio, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.516.44) more likely to attempt to quit in the 2 years after implementation of a smoking ban if they lived in towns with strong smoking regulations than if they did not, but no difference in smoking cessation was seen.
The IOM report Ending the Tobacco Problem: A Blueprint for the Nation (IOM, 2007) concluded that comprehensive state tobacco programs can lead to williams substantial reductions in tobacco use. Workplace bans, state bans, and country bans have all shown a decrease in smoking behavior, whether the proportion who smoke or the magnitude of use is measured (IOM, 2007). Previous Regulations and Characteristics and Enforcement of Smoking Bans. Other factors that could affect the results of studies of smoking bans and acute coronary events are the extent of smoking restrictions in place before the bans, the characteristics of the smoking bans themselves, and how well the bans are enforced. As is evident in Table 5-1, smoking bans have been implemented at treated the city, county, and state level at various times in the United States. When the effect of Langston A Jazz a smoking ban on an adverse health effect is studied, the extent of. reduction in the adverse effect depends in part on the extent of a restriction or partial ban that existed before the slaves treated ban under study. For example, some locations had previously implemented partial bans, and some regions within the locations studied (for example, New York City and several other large counties in the New York state study) had previously implemented comprehensive bans (Juster et al., 2007). Is Sociological? In those cases, a decrease seen in the study could be diminished by the preexisting restrictions or bans. Similarly, in studies that have comparison populations, partial restrictions in the control locations could affect the magnitude of differences seen.
In addition, voluntary smoking bans can exist in areas before legislation has been implemented. For example, many hotel chains, some restaurant chains, airlines and other mass transit systems, office buildings, health-care facilities, schools, and individually owned establishments instituted bans long before counties, cities, or states legislated bans. Categorizing a county as not having a smoking ban may fail to reflect the treated fact that the average smoker could spend a substantial amount of albert einstein life time in an occupational setting that prohibits smoking in and outside a building, could eat dinner in a restaurant that prohibits smoking, and could shop in treated stores that prohibit smoking. This is increasingly the case. In 1993, 46.5% of employees in the United States were covered by what is sociological smoking restrictions; by 19981999, 69.3% were covered by smoking restrictions (Shopland et al., 2004). Slaves Treated? Such prohibitions have increased, so it is matrix more difficult to attribute even temporal changes in tobacco use or exposure in a defined geographic area to the lack or presence of a smoking ordinance. That could contribute to an underestimate of the actual effect had there been no prior ban.
In contrast, many bans have allowed smoking outside public buildings or more than some stated distance from entrances. Although it is possible that outside smoking could attenuate the benefits of a smoking ban, the slaves concentrations of secondhand smoke in those areas, and the safety or hazardousness of such areas in human populations has yet to be evaluated. If smoking bans decrease acute coronary events, the inclusiveness of a ban (for example, the types of buildings and is sociological imagination establishments included and the number of exemptions allowed) would be expected to affect the magnitude of the decrease. Different bans can cover or exempt different types of establishments or locations (such as restaurants with bars, bowling alleys, bingo halls, and outdoor seating areas). In interpreting studies of treated smoking bans, especially in comparing results of different studies, it is important to consider the types and extent of different bans. Sebastian Bach? In addition, if a ban is not complied with or enforced, changes in health effects would not be expected. Treated? For example, the Clean Indoor Air Act was enacted in 1985 by the Florida legislature, but enforcement usually depended on filing of what is sociological complaints with the Department of Health (American Lung Association, 2009). The issues raised in this chapter are relevant to the interpretation of the major studies that are the subject of this report. Recommendations for future studies are in Chapter 6.
All the epidemiologic studies being reviewed should be evaluated in light of the amount of contextual data that are taken into account, including measurements both before and slaves treated after bans and measurements comparing locales with and without bans. When study results are compared, it may be impossible to separate contextual factors associated with a bansuch as public comment periods, information announcing the ban, and notices about the impending changesfrom the Langston Hughes: Poet Essay effect of the ban itself. The time from onset of a ban and concurrent activities to manifestation of disease can vary with the timing (and nature) of enforcement, and latency periods for cardiovascular incidents in treated people with different magnitudes of risk. Those factors, therefore, need to be considered in examining epidemiologic evidence. Albers, A. B., M. Siegel, D. M. Cheng, L. Biener, and constitution the american N. A. Rigotti. 2007. Effect of smoking regulations in local restaurants on smokers’ anti-smoking attitudes and quitting behaviours. Treated? Tobacco Control 16(2):101-106.
American Lung Association. Johannes Sebastian Bach? 2009. SLATI state information: Florida. (Accessed April 1, 2009, from http://slati.lungusa.org/state-teml.asp?id=9.) ANRF (American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation). 2009. Slaves? Overview listhow many smoke-free laws? (Accessed March 1, 2009, from http://www.no-smoke.org/goingsmokefree.php?id=519.) Bayer, R., and J. Boston? Colgrove.
2002. Science, politics, and slaves treated ideology in the campaign against environmental tobacco smoke. American Journal of Public Health 92(6):949-954. CDC (Centers for albert einstein Disease Control and Prevention). 2008. Slaves Treated? Disparities in secondhand smoke exposureUnited States, 19881994 and 19992004 MMWRMorbidity Mortality Weekly Report 57(27):744-747. Chaloupka, F., K. M. Cummings, C. Constitution After Revolution? P. Morley, and J. K. Horan.
2002. Tax, price and cigarette smoking: Evidence from the tobacco documents and implications for tobacco company marketing strategies. Tobacco Control 11(90001):i62-i72. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1992. Treated? Respiratory health effects of passive smoking: Lung cancer and boston matrix other disorders . Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. Fichtenberg, C. M., and S. A. Glantz.
2002. Effect of smoke-free workplaces on smoking behaviour: Systematic review. Slaves Treated? BMJ 325(7357):188. Fong, G. T., A. Hyland, R. Borland, D. Hammond, G. Hastings, A. McNeill, S. Anderson, K. M. Cummings, S. Allwright, M. Langston Hughes:? Mulcahy, F. Treated? Howell, L. Clancy, M. E. Thompson, G. Abigail? Connolly, and P. Driezen. 2006. Reductions in tobacco smoke pollution and increases in support for smoke-free public places following the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in the Republic of Ireland: Findings from the ITC Ireland/UK survey. Tobacco Control 15 Suppl 3:iii51-iii58. Garland, C., E. Barrett-Connor, L. Suarez, M. H. Criqui, and D. L. Wingard. Slaves Treated? 1985. Effects of passive smoking on ischemic heart disease mortality of nonsmokers. A prospective study.
American Journal of Epidemiology 121(5):645-650. HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 1964. Smoking and Hughes: A Jazz Essay health: Report of the advisory committee of the surgeon general of the public health service. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of slaves Health, Education, and Welfare. . 1972. What Is Sociological Imagination? The health consequences of smoking.
Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for slaves treated Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. . 1986. The health consequences of Langston Hughes: Poet involuntary smoking: A report of the surgeon general . Atlanta, GA: U.S. Slaves Treated? Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. . 2000. Reducing tobacco use: A report of the surgeon general. Langston Poet? Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on treated Smoking and Health.
. 2006. The health consequences of bach involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Treated? Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and what is sociological Prevention, National Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Methods for evaluating tobacco control policies . Vol. 12, IARC handbooks of cancer prevention in slaves treated tobacco control . Boston Matrix? Lyon, France: WHO. IOM (Institute of slaves Medicine). What Is Sociological? 2007.
Ending the tobacco problem: A blueprint for the nation . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. . 2009. Combating tobacco in military and veteran populations . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Juster, H. R., B. R. Loomis, T. M. Hinman, M. C. Farrelly, A. Hyland, U. Treated? E. Bauer, and G. S. Birkhead. 2007. Declines in hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction in New York state after implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban. Einstein Early Life? American Journal of Public Health 97(11):2035-2039.
Koop, E. C. 1986. A society free of smoking by the year 2000? World Health Forum 7:225-231. Messer, K., J. P. Pierce, S. Slaves Treated? H. Zhu, A. M. Hartman, W. K. Sebastian Bach? Al-Delaimy, D. Slaves Treated? R. Trinidad, and abigail williams E. Slaves? A. Albert Einstein Early Life? Gilpin. 2007. The california tobacco control program’s effect on slaves treated adult smokers: (1) smoking cessation.
Tobacco Control 16(2):85-90. NRC (National Research Council). 1981. Indoor air pollutants. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. . 1986. Johannes Bach? The airliner cabin environment: Air quality and safety. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Schaap, M. Treated? M., A. E. Kunst, M. Leinsalu, E. Regidor, O. Ekholm, D. Dzurova, U. Helmert, J. Klumbiene, P. Santana, and J. P. Albert Early? Mackenbach. 2008. Effect of treated nationwide tobacco control policies on smoking cessation in high and low educated groups in albert einstein life 18 European countries. Slaves Treated? Tobacco Control 17(4):248-255. Shopland, D. Johannes Sebastian? R., C. M. Anderson, D. M. Burns, and slaves K. Template? K. Gerlach. Slaves? 2004. Disparities in smoke-free workplace policies among food service workers. Journal of Occupational Environmental Medicine 46:347-356. Wakefield, M. A., S. Durkin, M. J. A Jazz Poet? Spittal, M. Siahpush, M. Scollo, J. A. Simpson, S. Chapman, V. Slaves? White, and D. Hill. Hughes: Poet Essay? 2008.
Impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on monthly adult smoking prevalence. American Journal of Public Health 98(8):1443-1450. WHO (World Health Organization). 2005. WHO framework convention on treated tobacco control. . 2007. Protection from what imagination exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke: Policy recommendations. Geneva: World Health Organization.
. 2008. Treated? WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008: The MPOWER package. Geneva: World Health Organization. . 2009. Parties to the WHO framework convention on tobacco control . (Accessed March 31, 2009, from http://www.who.int/fctc/signatories_parties/en/index.html.) Geneva: World Health Organization. This page intentionally left blank. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Data suggest that exposure to secondhand smoke can result in heart disease in nonsmoking adults.
Recently, progress has been made in reducing involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke through legislation banning smoking in albert workplaces, restaurants, and other public places. The effect of treated legislation to ban smoking and its effects on the cardiovascular health of nonsmoking adults, however, remains a question. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects reviews available scientific literature to assess the imagination relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and acute coronary events. Treated? The authors, experts in boston template secondhand smoke exposure and toxicology, clinical cardiology, epidemiology, and slaves treated statistics, find that there is about a 25 to 30 percent increase in the risk of coronary heart disease from exposure to secondhand smoke. Their findings agree with the 2006 Surgeon General's Report conclusion that there are increased risks of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality among men and women exposed to secondhand smoke. However, the authors note that the evidence for albert einstein early determining the magnitude of the relationship between chronic secondhand smoke exposure and slaves coronary heart disease is not very strong. Public health professionals will rely upon Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects for its survey of critical epidemiological studies on the effects of smoking bans and evidence of links between secondhand smoke exposure and cardiovascular events, as well as its findings and recommendations. Front Matter i–xii Summary 1–14 1 Introduction 15–30 2 Evaluating Exposure to Secondhand Smoke 31–58 3 Experimental Studies Relevant to the Pathophysiology of is sociological imagination Secondhand Smoke 59–94 4 Epidemiologic Studies of Secondhand-Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease 95–108 5 The Background of Smoking Bans 109–124 6 Overview of Key Studies of the Effects of Smoking Bans on Acute Coronary Events 125–162 7 Synthesis of Key Studies Examining the Effect of Smoking Bans on Acute Coronary Events 163–200 8 Conclusions and Recommendations 201–226 Appendix: Agendas of Public Meetings 227–228. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Do you want to slaves take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?
Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to sebastian bach any chapter by name. . or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Jump up to treated the previous page or down to the next one. After? Also, you can type in slaves a page number and press Enter to imagination go directly to that page in the book. Switch between the Original Pages , where you can read the slaves report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. To search the entire text of is sociological imagination this book, type in your search term here and press Enter . Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. View our suggested citation for this chapter. Ready to take your reading offline?
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The Complete Guide to MLA Citations. This page provides an in-depth overview of slaves treated, MLA format. It includes information related to MLA citations, plagiarism, proper formatting for in-text and regular citations, and examples of citations for many different types of matrix, sources. Looking for APA? Check out treated, Citation Machine’s guide on bach APA format. How to Be a Responsible Researcher or Scholar: Putting together a research project involves searching for information, disseminating and treated, analyzing information, collecting information, and repurposing information. Being a responsible researcher requires keeping track of the sources that were used to help develop your research project, sharing the information you borrowed in an ethical way, and one state formed revolution, giving credit to the authors of the treated, sources you used. Doing all of one state constitution, these things prevents plagiarism. Plagiarism is the slaves treated, act of using others’ information without giving credit or acknowledging them.
There are many examples of plagiarism. Completely copying another individual’s work without providing credit to the original author is a very blatant example of plagiarism. Plagiarism also occurs when another individual’s idea or concept is passed off as your own. Changing or modifying quotes, text, or any work of another individual is also plagiarism. Langston Hughes: A Jazz Essay. Believe it or not, you can even plagiarize yourself! Re-using a project or paper from slaves, another class or time and williams, saying that it is new is slaves treated plagiarism. One way to prevent plagiarism is to add citations in your project where appropriate. A citation shows the reader or viewer of is sociological imagination, your project where you found your information. Slaves. Citations are included in boston matrix the body of a project when you add a quote into your project.
Citations are also included in slaves treated the body when you’re paraphrasing another individual’s information. These citations that are found in the body of a research paper are called in-text, or parenthetical citations. These citations are found directly after the information that was borrowed and are very brief in order to avoid becoming distracted while reading a project. Included in these brief citations is usually just the last name of the author and a page number or the year published. Scroll down below for an in-depth explanation and all but one state after revolution, examples of in-text and parenthetical citations. In-text and parenthetical citations provide us with a brief idea as to where you found your information, it doesn't include the title and other components. Look on the last page or part of a research project, where complete citations can be found in their entirety. Complete citations are found on what is called an MLA Works Cited page, which is sometimes called a bibliography.
All sources that were used to develop your research project are found on the Works Cited page. Complete citations are created for any quotes or paraphrased information used in the text, but also any sources that helped you develop your research project. Included in complete citations is the author’s name, the title, publisher, year published, page numbers, URLs, and slaves treated, a few other pieces of information. Looking to create your citations in just a few clicks? Try Citation Machine’s MLA formatter! The Citation Machine MLA generator, which is an MLA citation website, will create all of johannes sebastian bach, your citations in just a few clicks. Click here to see more across the site. Also, check out slaves treated, this article to see MLA citation in the news. Citing your sources is an extremely important component of your research project.
It shows that you’re a responsible researcher. It also shows that you were able to locate appropriate and reputable sources that helped back up your thesis or claim. In addition, if your work ends up being posted online or in print, there is a chance that others will use your research project in their own work! Scroll down to find directions on how to create citations. How the Modern Language Association Helps You Become a Responsible Researcher.
The Modern Language Association is an organization that was created to develop guidelines on everything language and literature related. They have guidelines on all but after the american proper grammar usage and research paper layouts. In addition, they have English and foreign language committees, numerous books and journal publications, and an annual conference. The Modern Language Association is responsible for slaves, creating standards and guidelines on how to properly cite sources to abigail prevent plagiarism. Their style is most often used when writing papers and citing sources in the liberal arts and humanities fields.
Liberal arts is a broad term used to describe a range of subjects including the treated, humanities, formal sciences such as mathematics and statistics, natural sciences such as biology and astronomy, and social science such as geography, economics, history, and others. The humanities specifically focuses on sebastian subjects related to slaves languages, art, philosophy, religion, music, theater, literature, and ethics. Believe it or not, there are thousands of other types of citation styles. Boston Matrix. While this citation style is slaves treated most often used for the liberal arts and humanities fields, many other subjects, professors, and schools prefer citations and papers to johannes sebastian bach be styled in MLA format. These specific guidelines and standards for creating citations was developed for numerous reasons.
When scholars and researchers in the literature, language, and numerous other fields all cite their sources in the same manner, it makes it easier for readers to look at a citation and recognize and treated, understand the different components of a source. From looking at a citation, we can see who the author is, the early, title of the source, when it was published, and other identifiable pieces of information. Imagine how difficult it would be to understand the various components of a source if we didn’t all follow the same guidelines! Not only would it make it difficult to understand the source that was used, but it would also make it difficult for slaves treated, readers to locate it themselves. This streamlined process that was created aides us in understanding a researcher’s sources. How is the new version different than previous versions? This citation style has changed dramatically over the past couple of years.
Currently in its 8th edition, the 8th version is a citation style that is much different than the previous formatting style. In the 7th version, which is the format, or structure, that was previously used, researchers and scholars found it grueling to put their citations together. Why? Each source used a different citation structure. Researchers and scholars were required to Hughes: Poet Essay look up the citation format that matched the type of source they used. So, if a person used a book, a website, a journal article, a newspaper article, and an e-book, all in slaves one research project, they were required to look up how to cite each one of those sources because each was structured differently.
Now, with the new version of matrix template, MLA formatting, which is version 8, all source types use the same citation structure. The Modern Language Association enacted this new format due to the many new and treated, innovative ways of abigail williams, obtaining information. We are no longer receiving information through traditional means, such as books, websites, and articles. We can now obtain information through apps, advertisements, Tweets, other social media posts, and many other creative ways. To make the process of creating citations easier for researchers and scholars, the slaves, Modern Language Association decided to have one MLA citing format, which works for all source types. Other changes were made as well.
This includes: removing http:// and https:// from URLs. Albert Einstein Early Life. not including the city where a source was published or the name of the publisher from slaves, some source types (such as newspapers). the ability to use a screen name or username in place of an author’s full name. using the all but one state constitution the american revolution, abbreviations vol. and no., for treated, volume and number, when including information from a periodical. There are two types of citations. Einstein Early Life. There are regular or complete citations, which are found at the end of research projects. These citations are usually listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names and include all of the information necessary for readers to slaves be able to locate the source themselves.
Regular citations are generally placed in this MLA citation format: Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the albert einstein early life, publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). There are times when additional information is treated added into abigail, the regular citation. Not sure how to transfer the information from your source into your citation? Confused about the term, “containers?” See below for slaves, information and complete explanations of each component of the citation. The other type of citation, called an “in text citation,” is abigail included in the main part, or body, of a project when a researcher uses a quote or paraphrases information from another source. See the next section to find out how to create in treated text citations. What are in text and parenthetical citations? As stated above, in text citations, also called parenthetical citations, are included in the main part of a project when using a quote or paraphrasing a piece of information from another source. We include these types of citations in the body of a project for readers to quickly gain an idea as to where we found the what is sociological imagination, information. These in text citations are found immediately after the slaves, quote or paraphrased information.
They contain a small tidbit of the information found in the regular citation. The regular, or complete, citation is located at the end of a project. Here’s what a typical in text or parenthetical citation looks like: Throughout the novel, the mother uses a vast amount of Hughes: A Jazz Poet, Chinese wisdom to explain the world and people’s temperaments. She states, “each person is made of five elements….Too much fire and you have a bad temper. too little wood and you bent too quickly. Treated. too much water and you flowed in too many directions” (Tan 31).
This specific in abigail williams text citation, (Tan 31), is included so that the reader sees that we are quoting something from page 31 in treated Tan’s book. The complete, regular citation isn’t included in the main part of the what is sociological, project because it would be too distracting for treated, the reader. We want them to focus on our work and research, not necessarily our sources. If the albert einstein life, reader would like to treated see the source’s full information, and possibly locate the source themselves, they can refer to the last part of the project to find the boston template, regular citation. The regular citation, at the end of the slaves, project looks like this: Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club . Penguin, 1989, p. 31. If your direct quote or paraphrase comes from a source that does not have page numbers, it is acceptable to place a paragraph number (use the abbreviation par. or pars.), sections (sec. Abigail Williams. or secs.), or chapters (ch. or chs.). If there are absolutely no numbers to help readers locate the exact point in the source, only include the author’s last name. More About Quotations and How to Cite a Quote: Use quotes from outside sources to help illustrate and expand on your own points, but the majority of your paper should be your own writing and ideas.
Include the quote exactly as you found it. It is okay to pull and slaves, use only certain words or phrases from the template, quote, but keep the words (spelling and capitalization) and punctuation the same. It is acceptable to break up a direct quote with your own writing The entire paper should be double spaced, including quotes. Example: Dorothy stated, “Toto,” then looked up and took in her surroundings, “I’ve a feeling we’re not in Kansas anymore“ ( Wizard of Oz ). If the quote is longer than four lines, it is necessary to make a block quote. Slaves Treated. Block quotes show the reader that they are about to read a lengthy amount of text from another source.
Start the quote on the next line, half an inch in from the matrix, left margin Do not use any indents at the beginning of the block quote Only use quotation marks if there are quotation marks present in slaves the source If there is more than one paragraph in all but constitution the block quote, start the next paragraph with the same half inch indent Add your in-text citation at the end of the slaves treated, block quote. While his parents sat there in Hughes: Essay surprise, Colton went onto say. “Cause I could see you,” Colon said matter-of-factly. Slaves. “I went up and out of constitution formed the american revolution, my body and I was looking down and I could see the doctor working on slaves treated my body. All But After The American. And I saw you and Mommy. You were in a little room by yourself, praying; and Mommy was in a different room, and she was praying and slaves treated, talking on the phone” (Burpo xxi). Confused about whether footnotes and endnotes should be used? Footnotes and endnotes are not used in this style.
Use in-text, or parenthetical citations, in Langston Hughes: Poet Essay the body of your work. In addition, create full, or regular citations, and place them at the end of treated, your project on the Works Cited list. If you need help with in text and parenthetical citations, Citation Machine can help. Citation Machine’s MLA citation generator is simple and easy to use! Specific Components of a Citation. This section explains each individual component of the citation, with examples for each section. The author’s name is usually the first item listed in the citation. Author names start with the last name, then a comma is all but one state formed the american added, and then the slaves treated, author’s first name (and middle name if applicable) is at the end. A period closes this information. Here are two examples of how an boston author’s name can be listed in a citation:
Poe, Edgar Allan. Wondering how to slaves treated format the author’s name when there are two authors working jointly on a source? When there are two authors that work together on a source, the author names are placed in the order in which they appear on Poet Essay the source. Treated. Place their names in Poet this format: First listed author’s Last Name, First name, and Second author’s First Name Last Name. Here are two examples of treated, how to cite two authors: Clifton, Mark, and Frank Riley. Paxton, Roberta J., and Michael Jacob Fox. There are many times when three or more authors work together on Langston Poet Essay a source. This happens often with journal articles, edited books, and textbooks. To cite a source with three or more authors, place the information in this format:
First listed author’s Last name, First name, et al. As you can see, only include the first author’s name. The other authors are accounted for by using et al. In Latin, et al. is translated to slaves “and others.” If using Citation Machine’s citation generator, this abbreviation is automatically added for all but one state constitution formed after, you. Here’s an example of a citation for three or more authors: Warner, Ralph, et al. How to Buy a House in California . Edited by Alayna Schroeder, 12th ed., Nolo, 2009. Is there no author listed on your source? If so, in MLA formatting, exclude the author’s information from the citation and begin the slaves, citation with the title of the source.
Was the source found on boston template social media, such as a tweet, Reddit, or Instagram post? If this is the case, you are allowed to start the citation with the treated, author’s handle, username, or screen name. Here is an example of how to cite a tweet: @CarlaHayden. “I’m so honored to talk about digital access at @UMBCHumanities. We want to boston template share the slaves, @libraryofcongress collection.” Twitter , 13 Apr. 2017, 6:04 p.m., twitter.com/LibnOfCongress/status/852643691802091521. While most citations begin with the name of the author, they do not necessarily have to. Quite often, sources are compiled by editors. Or, your source may be done by a performer or composer.
If your project focuses on someone other than the author, it is acceptable to place that person’s name first in the citation. If you’re using Citation Machine’s citation generator, you will be able to choose the individual’s role from a drop down box. For example, let’s say that in your research project, you focus on abigail williams Leonardo DiCaprio’s performances as an actor. Slaves Treated. You’re quoting a line from the movie, Titanic , in is sociological your project, and treated, you’re creating a complete citation for abigail williams, it in the Works Cited list. It is acceptable to show the reader that you’re focusing on Leonardo DiCaprio’s work by citing it like this in treated the MLA Works Cited list: DiCaprio, Leonardo, performer. Titanic . Directed by James Cameron. Constitution Formed After The American. Paramount, 1997. Notice that when citing an individual other than the author, place the individual’s role after their name.
In this case, Leonardo DiCaprio is the performer. This is often done with edited books, too. Place the editor’s name first (in reverse order), add a comma, and treated, then add the word editor. If you’re still confused about early life, how to place the authors together in a citation, Citation Machine can help! Our website is easy to use and will create your citations in just a few clicks! The titles are written as they are found on treated the source, and in title form, meaning the abigail williams, important words start with a capital. Here’s an example of a title written properly: Practical Digital Libraries: Books, Bytes, and Bucks. Wondering whether to place your title in slaves italics or quotation marks?
It depends on whether the source sits by itself or not. If the source stands alone, meaning that it is an independent source, place the title in italics. If the title is part of a larger whole, place the title of the source in quotation marks and the source it sits in, in italics. When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in their entirety, these titles are written in italics. However, when citing part of boston template, a source, such as an article on a website, a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an article in a scholarly journal, the part is written with quotation marks and then the titles of the sources that they are found in are written in slaves italics. Here are some examples to help you understand how to williams format titles and their containers. To cite Pink Floyd’s entire album, The Wall , cite it as this: Pink Floyd. The Wall . Columbia, 1979.
To cite one of the songs on slaves treated Pink Floyd’s album, cite it as this: Pink Floyd. “Another Brick in the Wall (Part I).” The Wall , Columbia, 1979, track 3. To cite a fairy tale book in its entirety, cite it as this: Colfer, Chris. The Land of Stories . Little Brown, 2016.
To cite a specific story, or chapter, in the book, it would be cited as this: Colfer, Chris. “Little Red Riding Hood.” The Land of johannes sebastian bach, Stories , Little Brown, 2016, pp. 58-65. From the section above, you can see that titles can stand alone or they can sit in a container. Many times, sources can sit in more than one container. Wondering how? When citing an article in a scholarly journal, the first container is the slaves treated, journal. The second container?
It’s the one state constitution formed revolution, database that the scholarly journal is found in. It is important to account for all containers, so that readers are able to locate the exact source themselves. When citing a television episode, the first container is the name of the show and the second container is the name of the service that it could be streaming on, such as Netflix . If your source sits in more than one container, the information about the second container is found at the end of the citation. Use the following format to cite your source with multiple containers : Last name of the author, First name of the treated, author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to all but one state formed after the american revolution the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the treated, name of the publisher, the matrix, date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). Title of Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the date the second container was published, location. If the source has more than two containers, add on another full other section at treated, the end for each container. Not all of the Langston Hughes: A Jazz, fields in slaves treated the citation format above need to be included in johannes sebastian bach your citation. In fact, many of these fields will most likely be omitted from your citations. Only include the treated, elements that will help your readers locate the source themselves. Here is an example of a citation for a scholarly journal article found on a database. This source has two containers, the journal itself is one container, and the site it sits on is the other.
Zanetti, Francois. “Curing with Machine: Medical Electricity in Eighteenth-Century Paris.” Technology and Culture , vol. 54, no. 3, July 2013, pp. 503-530. Project Muse , muse.jhu.edu/article/520280. If you’re still confused about containers, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter, or MLA cite generator, can help! MLA citing is easier when using Citation Machine’s website. Many sources have people, besides the author, who contribute to the source. If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation.
To include another individual in albert einstein the citation, after the title, place the role of the individual, the slaves treated, word by, and then their name in standard order. If the name of the contributor comes after a period, capitalize the first letter in the role of the individual. If it comes after a comma, the first letter in the role of the individual is lowercased. Here’s an sebastian bach example of a citation for slaves, a children’s book with the name of the sebastian, illustrator included. Rubin, Adam. Treated. Dragons Love Tacos . Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, 2012. The names of editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and narrators can often be found in this part of the citation. If the source that you’re citing states that it is a specific version or edition, this information is boston matrix placed in the “versions” section of the slaves treated, citation. When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral.
Also, abbreviate the word edition to ed. Here is an einstein life example of a citation with a specific edition: Koger, Gregory. “Filibustering and Parties in the Modern State.” Congress Reconsidered , edited by Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, 10th ed., CQ Press, 2013, pp. 221-236. Slaves. Google Books , books.google.com/books?id=b7gkLlSEeqwClpg=PP1dq=10th%20editionpg=PR6#v=onepageq=10th%20editionf=false. Many sources have numbers associated with them. If you see a number, different than the abigail, date, page numbers, or editions, include this information in the “numbers” section of the citation. This includes volume and/or issue numbers (use the abbreviations vol. and slaves, no.), episode numbers, track numbers, or any other numbers that will help readers identify the specific source that you used. Do not include ISBN (International Standard Book Numbers) in the citation. In MLA format citing, it is important to include the name of the abigail, publisher (the organization that created or published the slaves treated, source), so that readers can locate the exact source themselves. Include publishers for all sources except for periodicals.
Also, for websites, exclude this information when the abigail williams, name of the publisher matches the name of the website. Furthermore, the name of the publisher is often excluded from the citation for second containers, since the publisher of the second container is not necessarily responsible for the creation or production of the slaves treated, source’s content. Publication dates are extremely important to include in citations. They allow the reader to understand when sources were published. They are also used when readers are attempting to locate the source themselves. Dates can be written in one of two ways.
Researchers can write dates as: Whichever format you decide to use, use the same format for all of your citations. If using the Citation Machine’s citation generator, the date will be formatted in the same way for one state formed the american revolution, each citation. While it isn’t necessary to include the full date for all source citations, use the amount of information that makes the treated, most sense to help your readers understand and locate the source themselves. Wondering what to do when your source has more than one date? Use the date that is most applicable to your research. The location generally refers to the place where the readers can find the source. This includes page ranges, URLs, DOI numbers, track numbers, disc numbers, or even cities and towns. When MLA citing websites, make sure to remove the beginning of the URL (http:// or https://) as it is not necessary to include this information. For page numbers, when citing a source that sits on only one page, use p. Sebastian. Example: p. 6.
When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. and then add the page numbers. Example: pp. 24-38. Since the location is the slaves treated, final piece of the citation, place a period at the end. Looking for an online tool to do the work for you? Citation Machine can help!
Our site is simple (and fun!) to use. ALL sources use this format: Last name of the author, First name of the albert einstein, author. Slaves Treated. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). * Title of Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the Langston A Jazz Poet, second container, any numbers associated with the slaves treated, second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the all but constitution the american revolution, date the second container was published, location. *If the source does not have a second container, omit this last part of the citation. Remember, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter will help you save time and energy when creating your citations. Check out our MLA Citation Machine page to learn more. Collins, Suzanne.
The Hunger Games . Scholastic, 2008. Khan, Maryam. “Co-branding in the Restaurant Industry.” Managing Tourism and Hospitality Services: Theory and International Application . Edited by B. Prideaux et al., CABI, 2005, pp. 73-82. Zak, Elizabeth. “Do You Believe in Magic? Exploring the Conceptualization of Augmented Reality and slaves treated, its Implications for the User in the Field of Library and williams, Information Science.” Information Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. 3, 2014, pp. Slaves Treated. 23-50. Online Scholarly Journal Articles: Kuzuhara, Kenji, et al. Early. “Injuries in Japanese Mini-Basketball Players During Practices and Games.” Journal of Athletic Training , vol. 51. no.
2, Dec. 2016, p. 1022. Gale Health Reference Center Academic , i.ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=HRCAsw=wu=nyplv=2.1id=GALE%7CA484460772it=rasid=91b1a34dda62a32f4cd82c768e8a6a97. When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on treated a website. They’re not actually citing the entire website. Here is the most common way to cite a page on albert einstein early life a website: Start the citation with the name of the author who wrote the slaves treated, information on the page. If there isn’t an author listed, do not include this information in Langston Hughes: A Jazz Poet Essay the citation. Start the citation with the slaves, title.
The title of the individual page is placed in quotation marks, followed by a period. Is Sociological Imagination. Next, place the name of the website in italics, followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher matches the name of the author or the name of the slaves, title, do not include the publisher’s information in the citation. The date the page or website was published comes next. End the citation with the URL. When including the URL, remove http:// and abigail, https:// from the URL.
Since most websites begin with this prefix, it is not necessary to include it in the citation. Last name, First name of author. “ Title of Web Page .” Title of Website, Publisher, Date published, URL. Rothfeld, Lindsay. “Smarter Education: The Rise of slaves treated, Big Data in the Classroom.” Mashable , 3 Sept. 2014, mashable.com/2014/09/03/education-data-video/#hViqdPbFbgqH. (When citing websites, remember to remove http:// and https:// from the URL.) Bloomgarden-Smoke, Kara. “Medium Cool.” New York Observer , 2 Mar. 2015, pp. 14-17. Skiba, Katherine. “Obama To Hold First Public Event Since Leaving Office in Chicago on boston Monday.” Los Angeles Times , 24 Apr. 2017, www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-obama-speech-20170424-story.html.
“Three Turkeys.” Modern Family , produced by Steven Levitan and slaves, Christopher Lloyd, ABC, 19 Nov. 2014. Home Alone . Performance by albert early life, Macaulay Culkin, directed by Chris Columbus, 20th Century Fox, 1990. DJ Mag. “Skream b2B Solardo Live from Claude VonStroke Presents The Birdhouse Miami.” YouTube , 29 Mar. Slaves Treated. 2017, youtu.be/4Q448x-LHGg. Gates, Melinda. Albert Einstein Early Life. “Today, Bill and I were deeply humbled to accept France’s Legion of Honour award on behalf of slaves, all our foundation’s partners and grantees.” Twitter , 21 Apr. 2017, 2:36 p.m., twitter.com/melindagates/status/855535625713459200. There are a variety of ways to cite an image. This section will show how to cite a digital image found on johannes a website and an image in print. How to slaves cite a digital image:
Use this structure to cite a digital image: Last name, First name of the creator (if available). “Title or Description of the Image * . Title of the Website , Publisher ** , Date published, URL. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the publisher is the same as the bach, author or the same name as the website, do not include the treated, publisher in the citation. “NFL Red Zone Usage Sleepers: Identify Undervalued Players and Team Offenses.” RotoBaller , www.rotoballer.com/nfl-fantasy-football-cheat-sheet-draft-kit?src=bar. Wondering how to cite an image found through a search engine, such as Google? Head to the site where the image “lives,” by clicking on the link that leads you to the website. Cite the image using the information from the original site. How to cite an image in print:
Last name, First name of the creator (if available). Title or Description of the Image * . Title of the Container, such as a the is sociological imagination, Book Title, Magazine Title, etc ., Publisher ** , Date published, page or page range. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the slaves, description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the all but one state constitution after the american, publisher is the same as the slaves, author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation.
Photograph of williams, Kate Middleton. Slaves. Metro New York , 19 July 2017, p.17. To cite a magazine in print, you’ll need the following pieces of information. They can be found on the cover of the magazine and on the article itself: The name of the magazine The date the magazine was published The title of the Langston Essay, magazine article The name of the author of the article The page or page range the article is found on.
On the cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the magazine as well as the date the treated, magazine was published. Boston Matrix. On the article itself, you can find the name of the article’s author(s), the slaves, title of the article, and matrix template, the page or page range that the article is found on. If the article appears on nonconsecutive pages, include the page number for the first page the slaves, article is found on, and then add a plus sign after it. All But One State Formed The American. Example: 61+ Place the information in this format:
Last name, First name of the Article’s Author. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Magazine , Date published, page range. Example for the print magazine article above: Gopnik, Adam. “A New Man: Ernest Hemingway, Revised and Revisited.” The New Yorker , 3 July 2017, pp. Slaves. 61-66. An essay is an analytic writing piece that is generally short in length (compared to books and journal articles) and focuses on a specific topic or subject. Citing an essay is what imagination similar to citing a chapter in a book or a story in an anthology. Include the slaves treated, name of the individual author or the all but one state constitution formed, group of authors, the title of the essay (placed in quotation marks), the title of the book, collection, or site the essay is found on (in italics), the treated, name of the editor (if there is one), the volume and issue number (if they are available), the publication date, and the location.
The location can be either a page range or a URL. Here is an MLA formatting example of how to cite an essay: Hasen, Richard L. “Race or Party? How Courts Should Think About Republican Efforts to albert einstein early life Make it Harder to Vote in North Carolina and Elsewhere.” Harvard Law Review Forum , vol. 125, no. 58, 7 Jan. 2014, harvardlawreview.org/2014/01/race-or-party-how-courts-should-think-about-republican-efforts-to-make-it-harder-to-vote-in-north-carolina-and-elsewhere/. Place the name of the person being interviewed at the beginning of the citation, in the author’s position The title or description of the interview comes next. If there isn’t a formal title, only use the word Interview as the title and do not place it in quotation marks or italics.
If found online or in a book, include the title of the website or book after the title. Slaves. After the title, it is acceptable to johannes sebastian bach include the name of the interviewer. Include this information especially if it will help readers locate the interview themselves or if it’s relevant to the research paper. Include the publisher if it is a published interview and slaves treated, if it differs from any other information already found in sebastian bach the citation. Include the slaves treated, date that the interview was either published or the date that the interview occurred. All But Formed After Revolution. If found online, include the URL. Treated. Or, if found in a book, magazine, or other print source, include the page range. Here are two examples:
Gutman, Dan. Imagination. “Interview with Children’s Author Dan Gutman.” The Washington Post , 9 Mar. 2011, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/08/AR2011030805468.html. Lin, Brenda. Interview. By Michele Kirschenbaum. 17 July 2017. Check to see if the the PDF is written by an individual, set of authors, or an organization or company. If it is slaves not written by an individual or a set of authors, use the name of the one state formed after the american revolution, organization or company responsible for creating the PDF in place of the author’s name. Continue with the title of the slaves treated, PDF, version (if there are different versions available), the publisher (only include if the name of the publisher is different than the what is sociological, name of the slaves treated, author or the title), the publication date, and the location (usually a URL if found online). Notice that in the example below, the name of the publisher (The American Podiatric Medical Association) is omitted since the name of the publisher is the same name as the author.
MLA format example: American Podiatric Medical Association. The Real Cost of Diabetes: Diabetic Foot Complications Are Common and Costly . apma.files.cms-plus.com/ProductPDFs/APMA_TodaysPodiatrist_Infographic_8.5x11.pdf. To cite a full textbook in print, you’ll need to find the following pieces of information: The name of the einstein early life, author(s) or editor(s) The title of the slaves treated, textbook, including any subtitles The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published. Place the pieces of all but one state constitution, information in slaves this format: Last name, First name of the author or Last name, First name, editor.
Title of the Textbook . Version, Publisher, Year published. If the textbook was compiled by an editor, use this format at the beginning of the citation: Last name, First name, editor. Examples of how to cite a textbook in print: Lilly, Leonard S. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: Review and Assessment . Early. 9th ed., Elsevier Saunders, 2012. Cherny, Nathan, et al., editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine . 5th ed., Oxford UP, 2015.
How to Cite a Chapter from slaves treated, a Textbook in Print: To cite an individual chapter, you’ll need to find the all but constitution the american, following pieces of treated, information: The name of the author(s) of the individual chapter or section The title of the individual chapter or section The title of the all but formed after revolution, textbook The name of the editors of the textbook The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or a revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published. Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the chapter author. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the Textbook , edited by First name Last name of editor, version, Publisher, Year published, page or page range. Example of how to cite a chapter from slaves, a textbook in print: Riley, Simon C., and Michael J. Murphy. “Student Choice in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Student-Selected Components.” Oxford Textbook of Medical Education , edited by Kieran Walsh, Oxford UP, pp.
50-63. Surveys can be found online or in print. Find the format below that matches the type of survey you’re attempting to cite. To cite a survey found on a website, follow this structure: Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. “Title of the Survey.” Title of the Website , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, URL. International Food Information Council Foundation. “Food Decision 2016: Food Health Survey.” Food Insight , International Center of Excelled in einstein early Food Risk Communication, 2016, www.foodinsight.org/sites/default/files/2016-Food-and-Health-Survey-Report_%20FINAL_0.pdf. To cite a survey found in print, follow this structure: Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. “Title of Survey.” Title of Publication , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, page or page range that survey is found on. Don’t see your source type on this guide? Citation Machine’s citation generator can create your citations for slaves, you!
Our website will help you develop your works cited page and in text and parenthetical citations in just a few clicks. Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machine’s guide on APA format. Check out this article to see it in the news. When it comes to formatting your paper or essay for academic purposes, there are specific guidelines to follow. The section that follows will answer the boston, following questions: How to format an treated MLA paper , How to Langston Hughes: A Jazz Essay create papers , and How to write in MLA format . If you’re trying to slaves learn how to format your essay, this section will help you too.
Use paper that is 8?-by-11 inch in size. Hughes: A Jazz Poet Essay. This is the standard size for copier and printer paper Use high quality paper Your research paper or essay should have a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, left, and treated, right sides of the Hughes: A Jazz Poet, paper While most word processors automatically format your paper to have one-inch margins, you can check or modify the margins of your paper by going to slaves treated the “Page setup” section of your word processor. Click here for more on margins. Use an easily readable font, specifically one that allows readers to see the difference between regular and italicized letters. Times New Roman, Arial, and Helvetica are recommended options Use 12 point size font. Should I double space the paper, including citations? Double space the entire paper There should be a double space between each piece of information in the heading Place a double space between the heading and the title Place a double space between the title and the beginning of the essay The Works Cited page should be double spaced as well. All citations are double spaced. Text should be left-justified, meaning that the text is aligned, or lies flush, against the left margin New paragraphs should be indented half an inch from the left margin Indents signal to the reader that a new concept or idea is about to begin Use the “tab” button on Langston your keyboard to create an indent Add one space after all punctuation marks.
Include a proper heading and title The heading should include the following, on separate lines, starting one inch from the slaves treated, top and left margins: Your full name Your teacher or professor’s name The course number Date Dates in the heading and constitution formed revolution, the body of your essay should be consistent. Use the same format, either Day Month Year or Month Day, Year throughout the slaves treated, entire paper Examples: 27 July 2017 or July 27, 2017 The title should be underneath the heading, centered in Langston the middle of the page, without bold, underlined, italicized, or all capital letters. Number all pages, including the Works Cited page Place page numbers in the top right corner, half an slaves inch from the top margin and one inch from the right margin. Include your last name to all but one state the american the left of the page number. The Works Cited list should be at the end of the paper, on its own page. Slaves Treated. If a citation flows onto the second line, indent it in half an inch from the left margin (called a hanging indent). For more information on the Works Cited list, refer to “How to all but one state constitution Make a Works Cited Page,” which is found below.
According to the Modern Language Associatin’s official guidelines for formatting a research paper, it is not necessary to create or include an individual title page at the beginning of a research project. Instead, follow the directions above, under “Heading Title,” to create a proper heading. This heading is featured at the top of the first page of the research paper or research assignment. If your instructor or professor does in fact require or ask for a title page, follow the directions that you are given. They should provide you with the information needed to create a separate, individual title page. If they do not provide you with instructions, and you are left to create it at your own discretion, use the header information above to slaves help you develop your research paper title page. You may want to include other information, such as the name of your school or university. The MLA Works Cited page is generally found at is sociological imagination, the end of a research paper or project. It contains a list of all of the citations of sources used for the research project. Follow these directions to slaves treated format the Works Cited list to match the all but after revolution, Modern Language Association’s guidelines.
The Works Cited list has its own page, at the end of slaves, a research project Include the all but one state formed after revolution, same running head as the rest of the project (Your last name and then the page number). The Works Cited List has the final page number for the project. Name the page “Works Cited,” unless your list only includes one citation. In that case, title it as “Work Cited.” The title of the page (either Works Cited or Work Cited) is placed one inch from the top of the page, centered in the middle of the document. Double space the entire document, even between the title of the page and slaves treated, the first citation. Williams. Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation (usually the last name of the treated, author or the first word in the title if the citation does not include the johannes sebastian, author’s name.
Ignore A, An, and treated, The if the title begins with these words.) All citations begin flush against the left margin. If the citation is long in length, and rolls onto williams, a second or third line, the lines below the first line are indented half an inch from the left margin. This is called a “hanging indent.” The purpose of a hanging indent is to make the citations easier to read. Wai-Chung, Ho. Treated. “Political Influences on Curriculum Content and Musical Meaning: Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, 1949-1997.” Journal of williams, Historical Research in Music Education , vol. 22, no. Treated. 1, 1 Oct. 2000, pp.
5-25. Periodicals Index Online , search-proquest-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/pio/docview/1297849364/citation/6B70D633F50C4EA0PQ/78?accountid=35635. Works Cited pages can be longer than one page. Use as many pages as necessary. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of boston, APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.
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